THE 7th SOUTH CAROLINA VOLUNTEER
BY MAC WYCKOFF
The 7th South Carolina is known as "the Bloody Seventh" because of its bloodshed in numerous Civil War battles as part of Kershaw�s Brigade. While much of the first year was spent near the front in Northern Virginia and on the Virginia Peninsula between the York and James Rivers, the men of the 7th only saw minor skirmishing. It was time well spent learning their trade as soldiers. The weak died or were sent home as they were of no
value to the army. The survivors spent countless hours learning Civil War drills and maneuvers, suffered the rigors of long marches, witnessed the dangers of combat and became accustom to a lack of sufficient food and clothing.
The first serious combat occurred at Savage Station on June 29, 1862 during the Seven Days Campaign. In this brief but intense fight, the regiment lost 25 killed or mortally wounded and 59 wounded. Two days later they again came under fire at Malvern Hill.
While they escaped the worst of the slaughter, an additional 11 died and 19 more were wounded.
Held in the Richmond area to protect the Confederate capital, the 7th South Carolina
missed the severe fighting of 2nd Manassas. During the siege of Harpers Ferry, Kershaw�s
Brigade drew the key assignment of capturing Maryland Heights. On September 13, the 7th bore the brunt of the fighting in the successful capture of the heights, but paid a high price losing 28 killed and about 85 wounded. Four days later, they fought near the Dunker Church at Antietam losing another 39 killed and 137 wounded. The regiment was beginning to earn its nickname.
Three months later at Fredericksburg, the 7th South Carolina stood atop Marye�s Heights next to the Marye House. Lieutenant Colonel Elbert Bland brilliantly used the terrain to his advantage by having his command load their weapons while protected by the reverse slope of the hill and exposed themselves to enemy fire only briefly while they fired. The right wing of the regiment being more exposed by the lay of the ground suffered the majority of the 7 killed and 62 wounded.
A long cold winter allowed time for the exhausted soldiers to regain their strength and many of the wounded to heal. In the first week of May, 1863, their brigade held many important positions at Chancellorsville, but were only lightly engaged suffering 2 killed and 11 wounded. The momentum of back to back victories along the Rappahannock River propelled the Confederate army north to the Pennsylvania college town of Gettysburg.
The 7th marched across the Rose Farm and seized the Stony Hill, only to be forced back by a counter attack from the Wheatfield. The unit lost 29 killed and 87 wounded in the bloodiest day of the war for Kershaw�s Brigade.
The Confederates returned to Virginia in late July for badly needed rest. Six weeks later, Kershaw�s Brigade boarded trains for northern Georgia. On Snodgrass Hill at Chickamauga the regiment lost about 100 more men including two of its best officers, Lieutenant Colonel Elbert Bland and Major John Hard. Beginning in November, the brigade participated in the East Tennessee campaign. Although not heavily engaged at several smaller engagements, the casualties continued to mount and morale suffered during the long cold winter in a section of the South where Union sentiment dominated
In April, the brigade joyfully returned to General Robert E. Lee�s army in central Virginia.
But joy quickly turned to blood, sweat and hardwork as Lee tangled with General Grant�s
forces in a series of five battles that went on for six weeks without a day of rest. The survivors choose not to remember the bloodiest and toughest campaign in American history. Twice in 48 hours, Kershaw�s Brigade helped save Lee�s army on May 6th at Wilderness and then at Spotsylvania.
By the third week in June, the armies had reached Petersburg. After an Union effort to seize Petersburg failed, Grant steadily stretched out his lines to the west to seize the roads and railroads into the city. At the same time, Grant tried a series of quick thrusts to the northeast to capture Richmond. Kershaw�s Brigade participated in one of these actions known as 1st Deep Bottom at the end of July. In early August, the brigade went to the Shenandoah Valley where they fought in several small engagements as well as the highly
significant action at Cedar Creek on October 19 in which the Confederate force in the valley was routed after an early morning success.
The Carolinians returned to the Richmond area for a few weeks and in early January, 1865 went to their home state in an attempt to stop General William T. Sherman march. Badly outnumbered and outmaneuvered in the Palmetto State, the brigade fought their last battles in North Carolina at Averasboro and Bentonville in an unsuccessful attempt to stop Sherman. On April 26, General Joseph E. Johnston surrendered his Confederate force to Sherman and on May 2, the survivors were paroled to go home.
Mitchell�s Ford, Va. July 18, 1861
1st Manassas, Va. July 21, 1861
Held Yorktwon line, Va. mid-April � May 3, 1862
Williamsburg, Va. May 4-5, 1862
Skirmish near Fair Oaks, Va. June 27, 1862
Savage Station, Va. June 29, 1862 (First real action and first casualties occurred)
Malvern Hill, Va. July 1, 1862
Maryland Heights, September 13, 1862
Antietam, Md. September 17, 1862
Fredericksburg,, Va. December 13, 1862
Chancellorsville, Va. May 1-5, 1863
Gettysburg, Pa. July 2,. 1863
Chickamauga, Ga. September 20, 1863
Campbell Station, Tn. November 16, 1863
Knoxville, Tn. November 18, 1863
Fort Sanders, Tn. November 29, 1863
Bean Station, Tn. December 14, 1863
Wilderness, Va. May 6, 1864
Spotsylvania, Va. May 8-21, 1864
North Anna, Va. May 23-25, 1864
Cold Harbor, Va. June 1-12, 1864
Petersburg, Va. June 18, 1864
1st Deep Bottom, Va. July 27-28, 1864
Charlestown, (Halltown) W.V. August 26, 1864
Berryville, Va. September 13, 1864
Hupp�s Hill, Va. October 13, 1864
Cedar Creek, Va. October 19, 1864
Held Salkehatchie River Line, S.C. January-February, 1865
Averasboro, N.C. March 16, 1865
Bentonville, N.C. March 19-21, 1865
Information about the officers is sometimes sketchy and contradictory. Acknowledgement
must be made to Glen Swain who spent many years researching the 7th South Carolina. It is my hope, that he will someday publish his material.
Thomas Glascock Bacon- Born on 6/24/62. Clerk of the court at the time of the 1860 census. Elected at organization on 4/15/61. Resigned on 5/4/62, failing health. Died on 9/25/76.
David Wyatt Aiken-Born on 3/17/28. Planter and teacher before the war. After the war a
newspaperman and Congressman. Elected at reorganization on 5/13/62. Seriously wounded and captured at Antietam on 9/17/62. His obituary was published. Paroled on 11/8/62. Resigned on 7/14/64. Died on 4/6/87.
James H. Mitchell- Born on 1/7/35. Farmer at the time of the 1860 census. Promoted to command regiment on 5/6/64, but records do not indicate he was promoted from captain.
Wounded at Cedar Creek on 10/19/64. Surrendered at Augusta on 5/19/65. Died on
Robert Anderson Fair-Born on 12/12/20. Lawyer. Elected at organization on 4/15/61.
Resigned at re-organization on 5/14/62. Died on 4/11/99.
Emmett Seibels- Born on 10/3/21. Lawyer. Promoted 5/9/62. Resigned at re-organization
on 5/14/62. Died on 12/19/99.
Elbert Bland- Born on 4/29/23. Physician. Elected at re-organization on 5/14/62. Wounded seriously in right leg at Savage Station on 6/29/62. Wounded slightly at Fredericksburg on 12/13/62. Wounded slightly in thigh at Gettysburg on 7/2/63. Killed at
Chickamauga on 9/20/63.
Elijah Jeremiah Goggans- Born on 9/30/34. Wounded slightly in face at Savage Station on
6/29/62. Assumed command of regiment at Chickamauga on 9/20/63. Promoted on 1/12/65, backdated to 9/20/63. Wounded in right arm at the Wilderness on 5/6/64. In hospital or on furlough until 1/6/65 when ordered to rejoin his command, but never did.
Thomas Allison Hudgens- Born on 6/19/31. Physician. Wounded slightly at Fredericksburg on 12/13/62. Wounded in the right thigh at the Wilderness on 5/6/64. Takes command of regiment at Cedar Creek on 10/19/64. Promoted at consolidation on 4/9/65.
Emmett Seibels- Elected at organization on 4/15/61. Promoted to lieutenant colonel on
5/9/62. See above for more information on him.
William Caspers White-Born on 11/17/21. Overseer. Elected at re-organization on 5/14/62. Killed at Antietam on 9/17/62.
John Stuart Hard- Born on 12/2/42. Promoted on 9/18/62. Killed at Chickamauga on 9/20/63.
David Wyatt Aiken-Elected at organization 4/15/61. Elected colonel at re-organization on
5/13/62. See above for more information on him.
Thomas Milton Chilton- Born about 1840. Appointed at re-organization on 5/14/62.
Wounded slightly in the face at Maryland Heights on 9/13/62. Killed at Antietam on 9/17/62.
John Richard Carwile- Detailed on 9/13/62. Appointed aide-de-camp on brigade staff on
Amon C. Stallworth- Born about 1839. Overseer. Promoted on 10/17/64.
Benjamin Franklin Lovelace-Born about 1834. Teacher. Elected at organization on 4/15/61. Promoted to brigade quartermaster on 11/19/62.
James A. Townsend- Born about 1837. Wounded in left arm at Maryland Heights on 9/13/62. Acting quartermaster 12/62-4/9/65 when promoted to captain of Company B.
Frederick L. Smith- Manufacturer. Detached to assist in commissary department in 8/61.
Promoted on 5/15/62. Resigned 2/28/63.
John Edmund Bacon-Retired 8/2/62.
Allen Stokes Dozier- Born on 11/9/33. Physician. Promoted on 4/30/61. Resigned on 6/62.
O.R. Horton-Promoted on 4/13/63 served through unknown date.
Allen Stokes Dozier- Elected at organization 4/15/61. Promoted to surgeon on 4/30/61.
See above for more information on him.
Richard Coleman Carlisle- Born on 12/5/35. Physician. Promoted on 6/14/62. Resigned on
6/6/64. Died on 8/21/06.
J.R. Speahe- promoted on 2/20/64. Paroled at surrender on 5/2/65.
John Mason Carlisle- Born on 10/29/26. Methodist minister. Elected 5/15/61. Resigned 12/61. Served again from some time in 1863 until 6/6/64. Died on 6/7/05.
Elbert Bland- Elected at organization on 4/13/61. Elected lieutenant colonel on 5/14/62.
See above for more information on him.
Stewart Harrison- Born about 1828. Trader before war, clerk of court after war. Elected at re-organization on 5/14/62. Resigned on 3/18/64
Augustus W. Burt- Born about 1839. Medical student in 1861. Wounded in right knee,
left ankle and left shoulder at Gettysburg on 7/2/63 and caputured a few days later at Fayetteville during the retreat. Left ankle amputated. Promoted on 3/18/64 while in prison and probably remained there for rest of war.
George M. Mattison- Elected at organization on 4/15/61. Resigned on 5/18/61.
William Ludlow Hodges-Born about 1837. Promoted 5/20/61. Resigned at re-organization on 5/14/62.
Thomas Allison Hudgens- Elected at re organization on 5/14/62. Promoted 10/19/64. See
above for more information him.
James A. Townsend- Elected at consolidation on 4/9/65. Paroled at surrender on 5/2/65.
See above for more information him.
Patrick Henry Bradley- Born on 6/28/13. President of Augusta & Knoxville RR. Elected at organization on 4/15/61. Resigned at re-organization on 5/13/62. Died on 8/14/87.
Wade Elephare Cothran- Born on 2/6/37. Elected at re-organization on 5/13/62. Wounded
in both thighs at Maryland Heights on 9/13/62 & disabled. Resigned on 8/22/63. Died on
John Lyons-Born on 3/19/41. Wounded in left knee at North Anna on 5/23/64. Promoted at consolidation on 4/9/65. Paroled at surrender at Greensboro 5/2/65. Died on 4/1/06.
Nicholas Hodges Palmer-Born about 1842. Wounded at Fredericksburg on 12/13/62.
Wounded and captured at Gettysburg on 7/2/63. Promoted on 8/25/63 even though he was at Johnson�s Island Prison, Ohio and remained in prison for rest of war.
Samuel Jones Hester- Born on 4/18/19. Elected at organization on 4/15/61. Took leave of absence on 12/20/61 and resigned at re-organization on 5/13/62.
Thomas Warren Allen- Born about 1831. Lawyer. Elected at re-organization on 5/13/62.
Admitted to Institute Hospital in Richmond on 3/31/63 with heart problems. Wounded
slightly at Chickamauga on 9/20/63. Admitted Episcopal Church Hospital in Petersburg on
7/4/64 with pneumonia. Resigned in 12/64.
David Denny- Born about 1808. Planter. Elected at organization on 4/15/61. Resigned at re-organization on 5/13/62,
James H. Mitchell- Elected at organization on 5/13/62. Promoted to command regiment on 5/6/64. For more information, see above.
Company F- Graniteville Volunteers, later changed to Davies Guards.
William L. Coleman- Elected at organization on 4/15/61. Resigned on 6/1/61 when the regiment went to Virginia.
John Stuart Hard- Promoted on 6/1/61. Promoted to major 9/17/62.
James E. Reardon- Born about 1838. Factory operative. Promoted on 9/17/62. Mortally
wounded in leg at Chickamauga on 9/20/63. Leg amputated. Died on 9/26/63.
Warren D. Brooks- Factory operative. Promoted on 9/26/63. Killed at Wilderness 5/6/64.
Benjamin A. McKibben- Born about 1841. Promoted 5/6/64. Wounded in right arm &
disabled at Cold Harbor on 6/1/64 and apparently did not return.
John Hampden Brooks- Born on 9/6/33. Elected at organization on 5/15/61. Promoted to brigade staff on 5/13/62. Died 11/14/11.
William E. Clark- Born on 3/29/31. Farmer. Elected at re-organization on 5/13/62.
Mortally wounded at Maryland Heights on 9/13/62. Died on 9/22/62.
Jonathan Wiley Kemp-Born about 1836. School teacher. Promoted on 9/22/62. Killed at
Wilderness on 5/6/64.
James Cresswell Williams- Born on 8/7/29. Wounded slightly at Fredericksburg on
12/13/62. Wounded severely in thigh at the Wilderness on 5/6/64. Elected at consolation
on 4/9/65. Paroled at surrender on 5/2/65. Died on 8/1/11.
Company H- Joe Johnston�s Riflemen
Henry W. Addison- Born about 1836. Lawyer. Elected at re-organization on 5/13/62.
Wounded by canister in thigh at Antietam on 9/17/62. Detailed as judge advocate for division from 1/31/63-6/10/63. Wounded in left leg at Chickamauga on 9/20/63. Leg amputated. Resigned on unknown date.
William Francis Prescott- Born on 11/26/22. Farmer. Elected at organization on 4/15/61.
Resigned at re-organization on 5/13/62. Died on 10/23/22.
Benjamin Roper- Born about 1833. Farmer. Elected at re-organization on 4/13/62.
Wounded in hip at Fredericksburg on 12/13/62. Wounded at Chickamauga 9/20/63.
Collected tax collector for Edgefield District on 10/11/64. Resigned on 12/19/64.
Bart M. Talbert- Born about 1841. Farmer. Elected at organization on 4/15/61. Resigned on at re-organization on 4/13/62.
Jonathan F. Burrees- Farmer. Elected at re-organization on 5/13/62. Wounded in left tibia
at Antietam on 9/17/62 and captured. Did not return to unit and resigned on 9/11/63.
Company L- All Saints Rifleman
William Caspers White- Promoted on 6/26/61. Elected major on 5/14/62.
John L. Litchfield- Born about 1836. Elected on re-organization on 5/14/62. Mortally wounded at Maryland Heights on 9/13/62. Died on 9/16/62. Brother of George L. Litchfield.
George T. Litchfield- Born about 1841. Promoted on 9/18/62. Captured at Cedar Creek on 10/19/64 and spent the rest of the war in prison.
Eldridge or (Elijah) Jeremiah Goggans- Born 9/30/64. Merchant. Elected when company
organized on 5/9/62. Wounded slightly in face at Savage Station on 6/29/62. Assumed
command of regiment at Chickamauga on 9/20/63. For more information see above.
Anderson Pickney Bouknight- Born on 12/3/37. Wounded slightly at Fredericksburg on 12/13/62. Wounded in left leg at Gettysburg on 7/2/63. Wounded slightly in left leg at Cedar Creek on 10/19/64. Prompted at consolidation on 4/9/65. Paroled at surrender at Greensboro on 5/2/65. Died on 9/22/26.
Dickert, Davis Augustus. A History of Kershaw�s Brigade. Wilmington, N.C.: Broadfoot
Publishing Company, 1990 reprint. This edition includes an introduction by today�s leading authority on Kershaw�s Brigade, an article on the author who was a member of Kershaw�s Brigade, maps, errata, and index that other editions do not contain.
Beach, Richard L., editor. Remember Me: The Civil War Letters of Lt. George Robinson and his son, Sgt. James F. Robinson of "The Glenn," Hamburg, South Carolina. Bowie, MD.: Heritage Books, Inc., 1991.
James Robinson was a member of the 7th South Carolina.
The best source of manuscript material on the 7th South Carolina exists at the South Caroliniana Library at the University of South Carolina. Other manuscript material exists in university libraries. County archives, and in the battlefield parks especially Fredericksburg & Spotsylvania National Military Park. The war-time newspapers contain
letters written by the soldiers, rosters, casualty lists, obituaries, etc. The University of South Carolina has these papers on microfilm, see especially the Edgefield Advertiser. The Compiled Service Records are on microfilm at the National Archives in Washington and the South Carolina Archives & History in Columbia. A Compilation of the Official records of the Union and Confederate Armies contain the surviving reports made at the regimental and higher command levels. Recollections and Reminiscences 1861 � 1865 Through World War I contain much useful information.
Glen Swain compiled a lengthy roster and nearly completed a first-rate narrative history of the 7th South Carolina. I hope that he will finish the book and have it published.
I wrote a history of the 2nd and 3rd South Carolina which have a similar history. A second edition of the 3rd South Carolina is available by contacting me firstname.lastname@example.org I also wrote two essays on the brigade. "Kershaw�s Brigade at Gettysburg," Gettysburg Magazine, July, 1991 published by Morningside Books, Dayton, Ohio. "Kershaw�s Brigade at Savage Station," The Peninsula Campaign of 1862: Yorktown to the Seven Days, Volume II, William J. Miller, editor. Published in 1995 by Savas Woodbury Publishers, Campbell, California.