2nd South Carolina Volunteer Infantry Regiment
By: Mac Wyckoff
The 2nd South Carolina participated in as many, if not more, battles than any other regiment on either side. It is one of the few units that was established before the bombardment of Fort Sumter and existed until several weeks after Lee's surrender at Appomattox. It established itself as one of the elite shock troop units of Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia. Two officers, Joseph Kershaw and John Kennedy, became generals and one man, Richard R. Kirkland became one of the most famous "common soldiers" of the war for his humanitarian efforts at Fredericksburg.
Governor Pickens, with authority granted by an Act of the South Carolina State Assembly, in late December of 1860 called for the formation of ten regiments from the state militia to serve for one year. Beginning in January of 1861, ten companies formed what was designated as the 2nd South Carolina (Palmetto) Regiment. It was mustered into state service on April 9, 1861 under Colonel Joseph Brevard Kershaw. When the men were offered the opportunity of joining the Confederate service, four of the companies along with the field and staff officers departed for Richmond on April 24, 1861. It was the first out of state one year regiment to come to Virginia's defense. Six other companies soon joined them and on May 22 and 23, 1861 the regiment was mustered into Confederate service.
Bombardment of Fort Sumter, SC, April 12-13, 1861
Mitchell's Ford, VA, July 18, 1861
1st Manassas, VA, July 21, 1861
Lewinsville, VA, September 25, 1861
Held Yorktown Line, VA, Mid-April- May 3, 1862
Williamsburg, VA, May 4-5, 1862
Skirmish near Fair Oaks, VA, June 18, 1862
Savage Station, VA, June 29, 1862
Malvern Hill, VA, July 1, 1862
Maryland Heights, MD, September 12-13, 1862
Antietam, MD, September 17, 1862
Fredericksburg, VA, December 11-15, 1862
Chancellorsville, VA, May 1-5, 1863
Gettysburg, PA, July 2-3, 1863
Chickamauga, GA, September 20, 1863
Campbell Station, TN, November 16, 1863
Knoxville, TN, November 18, 1863
Fort Sanders, TN, November 29, 1863
Bean Station, TN, December 14, 1863
Wilderness, VA, May 6-7, 1864
Spotsylvania, VA, May 8-21, 1864
North Anna, VA, May 23-25, 1864
Cold Harbor, June 1-12, 1864
Petersburg, VA, June 18, 1864
Deep Bottom, VA, July 27-28, 1864
Charlestown, WV, August 26, 1864
Berryville, VA, September 13, 1864
Hupp's Hill, VA, October 13, 1864
Cedar Creek, VA, October 19, 1864
Held Salkehatchie Line, January-February, 1865
Averasboro, NC, March 16, 1865
Bentonville, NC, March 19-21, 1865
Surrender with General Johnston at the Bennett House, NC, April 26, 1865 Receive
Paroles in Greensboro, NC, May 2, 1865
ENROLLMENT AND CASUALTIES:
Documents in the 19th century were poorly kept and many have not survived. What remains are partial, often conflicting or ambiguous, and sometimes incorrect records.
Enrollment-1475, plus some who served in the regiment after the consolidation of the
regiments of Kershaw's Brigade on April 9, 1865 and some bogus names in the Compiled
Service Records at The National Archives.
Received Paroles at Greensboro-213. An unknown number were on leave at the time or
deserted in the final days of the war.
Killed or Mortally Wounded in Action- 213
Died of Disease or Accident-209
Wounded (many more than once)-400
Joseph Brevard Kershaw -Elected February 2, 1861. Appointed Brigadier General
February 15, 1862.
Erwin P. Jones-Promoted February 15, 1862. Resigned at the reorganization May 13,
John Doby Kennedy -Elected at the reorganization May 13, 1862. Appointed Brigadier
General to rank from December 22, 1864. William Wallace-Promoted to rank from
December 22, 1864. Paroled at Greensboro on May 2, 1865.
Erwin P. Jones-Elected May 16, 1861. Promoted Colonel February 15, 1862.
Artemus Darby Goodwyn-Promoted February 15, 1862. Resigned June 3, 1863.
Franklin Gaillard -Promoted June 3, 1863. Killed at Wilderness May 6, 1864.
William Wallace -Promoted to rank from May 6, 1864. Promoted to rank from December
Records do not show anyone being promoted as Wallace's replacement.
Artemus Darby Goodwyn-Elected May 16, 1861. Promoted Lieutenant Colonel February
William H. Casson-Promoted February 15, 1862. Resigned at reorganization May 13,
Franklin Gaillard -Elected the reorganization May 13, 1862. Promoted to Lieutenant
Colonel June 3, 1863.
William Wallace -Promoted June 6, 1863. Promoted to rank from May 6, 1864.
Benjamin R. Clyburn-promoted to rank from May 6, 1864. He was captured at Cedar
Creek on October 19, 1864 and spent much of the rest of the war in prison.
Records do not show anyone being promoted to replace him.
Edward Elijah Sill-Elected May 16, 1861.
William S. Wood-Elected June 24, 1861. Apparently resigned July 20, 1861. Died August
William Drummond Peck- Appointed July 20, 1861. Apparently promoted within
Quartermaster Department 5/14/62.
Edward E. Niles-Appointed May 14, 1862. Died November 20, 1862.
James Irwin Villepigue-Appointed November 18, 1862.
James Irwin Villepigue-Appointed February 8, 1861. Apparently served until August 25,
William L. Appleton-Appointed August 25, 1862. Deserted August 1, 1863 with intention
to join western army.
Thomas Whitaker Salmond- Appointed February 2, 1861. Promoted brigade surgeon
probably in the winter of 1863-64.
John Chappell Maxwell-Promoted October 8, 1864. He was paroled at Greensboro on
May 2, 1865.
Henry Junius Nott-Appointed April25, 1861. Captured at Gettysburg and sent to prison.
John Chappell Maxwell-Appointed July 10, 1863. Promoted to surgeon October 8, 1864.
No record of someone being promoted to replace Maxwell.
Chaplain E. J. Meynardie-Appointed April 9, 1861. Resigned November 30, 1861.
A. Pickens Smith-Appointed July 1, 1862.
Company A, Governor's Guards
An existing volunteer company that was accepted for state service on January 5, 1861, the
unit received orders from Governor Pickens to rendezvous in Charleston on April 8, 1861.
Departed for Richmond on April 24, 1861 and mustered into Confederate service on May
22, 1861. Men were from Columbia and Richland District, now County). Some of the
later recruits and conscripts were from the Pickens District.
William H. Casson- Appointed April 8, 1861. Promoted Major February 1862.
Malcolm A. Shelton-Promoted February 15, 1862. Resigned at reorganization May 13,
Sherod Luther Leaphart-Elected at reorganization May 13, 1862. Captured at Gettysburg
and in prison for rest of war.
No record of someone being promoted to replace Leaphart
Company B, Butler Guards
An existing volunteer company that was accepted for state service on or about January 5,
1861, the unit was called to active duty by Governor Pickens on April 15, 1861. Originally
attached to the 4th South Carolina, the men decided to join the 2nd South Carolina so
they could go to Virginia. Departed for Richmond on May 6, 1861 and mustered into
Confederate service on May 23, 1861. Men were from Greenville with a few from the
rural parts of that district.
Augustus DeWitt Hoke-Appointed April 15, 1861. Severely wounded at 1st Manassas and
disabled. Resigned at reorganization on May 13, 1862.
Robert C. Pulliam-Elected at reorganization May 13, 1862. Mortally wounded at
Gettysburg. Died July 3, 1863.
William Robert Powell-Promoted July 4, 1863. Paroled at Greensboro May 2, 1865.
Company C, Columbia Greys
An existing volunteer company that was accepted for state service on January 7, 1861, the
unit received orders from Governor Pickens to Charleston on April 8, 1861. Departed for
Richmond on April 24, 1861 and mustered into Confederate service on May 23, 1861.
Men were from Columbia and Richland District with some of the later recruits and
conscripts from the Pickens District.
William Wallace-Appointed April 8, 1861. Promoted major June 3, 1863.
Solomon Lorick-Promoted June 3, 1863. Never fully recovered from wound at Antietam
on September 17, 1862 and so probably never actually was present as company
commander. Detailed to drill conscripts in S.C. on September 20, 1863 and later in Invalid
Oliver Johnston Youmans -Promoted at unknown date. Probably commanded company
after Wallace's promotion on June 3, 1863. Resigned March 14, 1864 as he was unpopular
with the men. Re-enlisted as private and killed at Wilderness on May 6, 1864.
No record of anyone being promoted to replace Youmans.
Company D, Sumter Volunteers
Organized on January 7, 1861, the company was called into active duty on April 8, 1861.
The unit departed for Richmond on April 26, 1861 and were mustered into Confederate
service on May 23, 1861. The men came from the Sumter District. After completing their
one year enlistment, 21 members of this company re-enlisted in Garden's Battery which
had been organized by Hugh Garden of this company.
John Smythe Richardson, Jr.-Appointed April 8, 1861. Wounded severely in leg at 1st
Manassas, he was disabled from further service. Resigned May 13, 1862.
Unknown who commanded company from May 13, 1862 to June 6, 1862.
James DuPre Graham-Promoted June 6, 1862. Paroled at Greensboro May 2, 1865.
Company E, Camden Volunteers
Organized on January 8, 1861, the company was called into active service on April 9,
1861. The unit departed for Richmond on April 24, 1861 and were mustered into state
service on May 23, 1861. The men came from Camden.
John Doby Kennedy-Appointed April 9, 1861. Elected Colonel at reorganization on May 13,1862.
William Zack Leitner-Elected at reorganization on May 13, 1862. Wounded in leg at Gettysburg on July 2, 1863. His leg was amputated and he was furloughed. Appointed enrolling officer for Kershaw District October 31, 1863.
No record of anyone else being promoted to replace Leitner.
Company F, Secession Guards
Organized on January 10, 1861, the company was ordered to rendezvous in Charleston on April 14, 1861. The company was attached to the 7th South Carolina until April 30, 1861. Like Company B, the men wished to serve on the front in Virginia. Departed for Richmond on April 30th and joined 2nd South Carolina. Mustered into Confederate
service on May 23, 1861. The men came from the small towns of the Abbeville District.
William Watson Perryman-Appointed January 10, 1861. On detail in enrolling office from June 1,1862 until promoted major in enrolling office on June 5, 1863.
George Marshall McDowall-Promoted June 5, 1863. Mortally wounded at Gettysburg on July 2, 1863 and died the next day.
William Calvin Vance-Promoted July 3, 1863. Paroled at Greensboro on May 2, 1865.
Company G, Flat Rock Guards
Organized on January 16, 1861, the company was called into active service on April 28, 1861. The unit was mustered into Confederate service on May 22, 1861. The men came from the northern rural areas of the Kershaw District.
Columbus Cureton Haile-Appointed April 24, 1861. Resigned at the reorganization on May 13, 1862.
Joseph P. Cunningham-Elected at the reorganization on May 13, 1862. Killed at Gettysburg on July 2, 1863.
Jesse Erasmus Truesdel-Promoted July 4, 1863. Severely wounded at Gettysburg two days earlier and eventually furloughed. Resigned on April 21, 1865 as result of consolidation of brigade.
Company H, Lancaster Invincibles
Organized on January 8, 1861, the company was called into active service on April 28, 1861. The unit was mustered into Confederate service on May 22, 1861 in Richmond. The men came from the Lancaster District.
Amos W. McManus-Appointed January 8, 1861. Resigned at reorganization on May 13, 1862.
Benjamin R. Clyburn-Elected at the reorganization on May 13, 1862. Promoted major to rank from May 6, 1864.
No record of anyone else being promoted to captain.
Company I, Palmetto Guards
Organized on June 28, 1851, this company was ordered into state service on December 27, 1860. Probably the first unit of either side to be activated for the war and one of the most famous companies because of their role at Fort Sumter as well as subsequent service with the 2nd South Carolina. From their position on Morris Island, Edmund Ruffin pulled the lanyard on a cannon this company manned to fire the first shot toward Fort Sumter.
Departed for Richmond on May 9, 1861 and mustered into Confederate service on May 22, 1861. The men came from the low country around Charleston and Beaufort.
George Barnwell Cuthbert. Appointed March 12, 1861. Mortally wounded at Chancellorsville on May 3, 1863. Died on May 10, 1863 at Guinea Station. The house was owned by the brother of Thomas Coleman Chandler at whose home "Stonewall" Jackson died on the same day.
Ralph Emmes Elliott-Promoted 5/10/63. Mortally wounded at Cold Harbor on June 1, 1864. Died on June 6, 1864 after learning that this brother, Steven Elliott, had been promoted to brigadier general.
Robert Fishburne, Jr.-Promoted to date from June 6, 1864. Paroled at Greensboro on May 2, 1865.
Thomas H. Reeder
Company K, Brooks Guards
The last company of the regiment to be organized occurred on May 8, 1861. The unit departed for Richmond on May 12, 1861 and mustered into Confederate service on May 23, 1861. The men came from Charleston and the Pickens District. During the winter of 1861 and 1862, 61 members of this company transferred to Fickling's Artillery.
Andrew Burnett Rhett- Appointed May 8, 1861. Organized an artillery during the winter of 1861 and 1862. Resigned at reorganization May 13, 1862 to become captain of Rhett's Battery, later known as Fickling's Artillery.
Jacob F. Moorer-Elected at reorganization on May 13, 1862. Mortally wounded at Gettysburg on July 2, 1863. Captured and died on July 27, 1863.
Jonathan Webb, Jr.-Promoted by April 30, 1864. Killed at Spotsyvania on May 12, 1864.
The records do not indicate if there was a captain of this company after Moorer's death until Webb was promoted.
James E, Dutart-Promoted May 12, 1864. Mortally wounded at Petersburg on June 21, 1864. Died the next day.
The records do not show anyone being promoted to replace Dutart.
Dickert, David Augustus. A History of Kershaw's Brigade. Wilmington, NC: Broadfoot Publishing Co., 1990 reprint. This edition includes an introduction by today's leading authority on Kershaw's Brigade, a article on the author (a member Kershaw's Brigade), maps, errata, and index that other editions do not contain.
The best source of manuscript material on the 2nd South Carolina exists in The South Caroliniana Library at the University of South Carolina. See especially the fabulous memoir by Robert Shand for the first half of the war. Other manuscript material exits in university libraries around the country such as the Perkins Library at Duke University, local and county archives - especially in Camden (see their website), in possession of
descendants of the veterans, and the libraries of the Civil War battlefield parks -especially Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania
The war-time newspapers contain letters written by the soldiers, rosters, casualty lists, obituaries, etc. The University of South Carolina has these papers on microfilm. See especially the Charleston and Columbia newspapers. Southern Historical Society Papers and Confederate Veteran contains obituaries and articles -see especially those by John Coxe in the latter publication. Recollections and Reminiscences 1861 - 1865 Through World War I contain much useful information. The Compiled Service Records are on microfilm at The National Archives in Washington and the State Archives and History in Columbia. The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies contain the surviving reports made at the regimental and higher
Salley, Alexander S. (Compiler). South Carolina Troops in the Confederate Service. Vol. II. Columbia, SC: The State Co., 1914. Wyckoff, Mac. A History of the 2nd South Carolina: 1861-1865. Fredericksburg, VA: Sergeant's Kirkland's Museum and Historical Society Inc., 1995. This book is currently out of print. The author has submitted a revised second edition to the publisher. Wyckoff, Mac. "Kershaw's Brigade at Gettysburg." Gettysburg Magazine. July, 1991.
Wyckoff, Mac. "Kershaw's Brigade at Savage Station." The Peninsula Campaign of 1862:
Yorktown to the Seven Days. Vol. II. William J. Miller, editor. Campbell, CA: Savas Woodbury Publishers, 1995.