Robert Emmett Rodes was born in Lynchburg, VA, on 29 March 1829, the son of a Gen'l (David Rodes, VA Militia). He graduated with distinction from the Virginia Military Institute in 1848 and was appointed an assistant professor there until 1851 when he resigned. He became chief engineer for the Northeast & Southwest Alabama Railroad by 1858. Rodes was granted a professorship at VMI in 1860, but the Civil War intervened before he could take up his chair.
Rodes volunteered and became Colonel in the 5th Alabama (May 1861). He led his regiment at 1st Manassas and was then commissioned Brigadier Gen'l (21 October 1861). As part of Major General Daniel H. Hill's Division in the Peninsular Campaign, Rodes' Brigade fought at Seven Pines (where Rodes was wounded), Gaines' Mill, and Malvern Hill, suffering 50% casualties. After Rodes' recovery, he led his brigade in rear guard action against Union Gen'l George McClellan at South Mountain, MD; at Sharpsburg, his brigade fought with the Confederate center at "Bloody Lane" (Rodes was again wounded). Rodes' brigade suffered severe losses, but was not engaged at Fredericksburg. When Gen'l Hill was transferred to North Carolina (January 1863), Rodes became division commander. Rodes led Lt. General Stonewall Jackson's flank attack at Chancellorsville and won himself a promotion to Major General (7 May 1863). When the Army of Northern Virginia moved into Pennsylvania, Rodes' Division led the advance and drove Union forces back through Gettysburg; during the retreat from Gettysburg, Rodes' Division formed the rear guard. At The Wilderness, Rodes stopped Union Gen'l Warren's advance, and at Spotsylvania, Rodes defended the "Mule Shoe" salient. Transferred to Gen'l Jubal Early's command in the Shenandoah Valley, Rodes participated at Monocacy. When Union Gen'l Phil Sheridan attacked Winchester (19 September 1864), Rodes was killed directing a counterattack that allowed Jubal Early's army to retreat safely.
Edward Asbury O'Neal, ultimately a governor of Alabama, was born on 20 September 1818, Madison County, Alabama Territory. He studied at LaGrange College (graduated 1836) and practiced law in Florence, AL (beginning 1840). He became a local politician and involved himself as a secessionist.
When war came in 1861, O'Neal joined the 9th Alabama Infantry. He was elected Major, then Lt. Col. In 1862, he was commissioned Col. of the 26th Alabama, fighting in Virginia through 1863. O'Neal commanded Rodes' Brigade when Rodes took over the division command. However, his performance did not qualify him for further promotion. When O'Neal's brigadier's commission was delayed and Gen'l Robert E. Lee appointed Brig. Gen'l Cullen A. Battle as brigade commander, O'Neal requested a transfer. President Jefferson Davis canceled the expected promotion and sent O'Neal to the Atlanta front. After the fall of that city, O'Neal was relieved and spent the remainder of the war with the Conscription Bureau in Alabama.
Following the surrender, O'Neal resumed his law practice and continued to be active in politics. He was elected governor of Alabama in 1882 and 1884. Following his service as governor, O'Neal retired to Florence, AL, and died there, 7 November 1890.
Cullen Andrews Battle was a politician and a soldier, born 1 June 1829, Powelton, Georgia. Battle moved with his family to Eufaula, AL (1836) and entered the University of Alabama to study law. He became an attorney in 1852 and was known as an orator and a secessionist. He organized a local militia company after the John Brown Raid and offered his services to Alabama immediately after the state seceded.
At the beginning of the Civil War, Battle was commissioned Lt. Col. in the 3rd Alabama Infantry and saw his first action at Seven Pines. He was promoted to Col. to replace the fallen Tennent Lomas, and the regiment joined Rodes' Brigade where Battle continued to serve until war's end. In the Maryland Campaign and at Fredericksburg, Battle commanded his regiment courageously. At Chancellorsville, Battle injured his back and was sidelined for several weeks. Battle did participate in Rodes' division's surprise attack against the Union right flank although his regiment was separated from the rest of the unit. Battle attached his regiment to Gen'l Stephen Ramseur's Brigade, and his performance at Gettysburg earned him a promotion to Brig. Gen'l (25 August, dating from 20 August 1863) and command of Rodes' Alabama Brigade. During the battles of 1864, the Alabamians suffered heavy casualties at The Wilderness, Spotsylvania, and in the Shenandoah Valley. Battle led his brigade at Winchester and was then badly wounded at Cedar Creek (19 October 1864). Battle was appointed Major Gen'l, but his wound incapacitated him so that the war ended before he could resume his military career.
After the surrender, Battle returned to his law practice in Alabama. He was elected to Congress in 1868 but could not take the "ironclad oath" of past loyalty. He was a delegate to the Alabama constitutional convention in 1874, but he moved to New Bern, North Carolina, where in 1880 he became editor of the Newbern Journal. Battle was also mayor of the town, briefly. He died at Greensboro, NC, 8 April 1905, and he was buried at Petersburg, VA.
The Third Alabama Infantry Regiment was organized at Montgomery in April, 1861. It was the first AL command that was sent to VA. Mustered into service at Lynchburg, 4 May, the regiment was ordered to Norfolk. There it was in a temporary brigade with the 1st and 12 VA, under Col. Jones M. Withers, who was soon after succeeded by Col. William Mahone. For 12 months, the 3rd remained at Norfolk and there reenlisted (but saw no active service). Norfolk was evacuated, 5 May 1862, and the regiment fell back with the army. At Seven Pines, it was held in reserve the first day and was badly cut up the second, losing 38 k and 122 w. Two weeks later it was attached to Gen'l Robert E. Rodes' Brigade, which now consisted of the 3rd, 5th, 6th, 12th and 26th AL regiments. The brigade, led by Col. John B. Gordon of the 6th, participated in the week of battle before Richmond, as part of Gen'l Daniel H. Hill's Division. The 3rd lost 207 out of 345 men and officers at the repulse at Malvern Hill and mustered with only 180 men shortly after that. They recruited quickly to rise to 300 men. Hill's Division was not engaged at Cedar Run or 2nd Manassas, but it moved with the army, and the 3rd AL was the first to plant the "stars and bars" in MD. At Boonsboro, the fighting was prolonged and desperate, as it was at Sharpsburg. The 3rd moved back into VA with the army, and it was in line of battle at Fredericksburg. At Chancellorsville, it was in Gen'l Stonewall Jackson's Corps in the assault on Hooker, and in the two days, lost 24 k and 125 w. In the second MD campaign, the 3rd moved with Gen'l Richard S. Ewell's Corps, to which it now belonged, as far as Chambersburg, PA. It lost heavily at Gettysburg, fighting both days with credit, and sharing in the privations of the retreat. After the return to VA, it skirmished at Mine Run and wintered at Orange Courthouse. Now under Brig. Gen'l Cullen A. Battle, the regiment bore a conspicuous part in the battles of The Wilderness and Spotsylvania, losing many. In the fighting at 2nd Cold Harbor, it charged the enemy and again lost heavily. It was with Gen'l Jubal Early in the Valley, and in MD, taking part in the demonstration against Washington, DC, and in the pursuit of Union Gen'l David Hunter. At Winchester, it's loss was heavy, and it suffered again at Cedar Hill, but it protected the rear of the retreating army. Placed in the trenches at Petersburg, the 3rd dwindled away by attrition until only about 40 men surrendered at Appomattox. Of 1651 names on the roll, about 260 were lost in battle, 119 died in the service, and 605 were discharged or transferred.
Field and staff officers: Cols. Jones M. Withers (Mobile; promoted); Tennent Lomax (promoted; KIA, 1 June 1862); Cullen Andrews Battle (Macon; wounded, Sharpsburg; promoted); Charles Forsyth (Mobile); Lt. Cols. Tennent Lomax (promoted); Cullen Andrews Battle (promoted); Charles Forsyth (promoted); Robert M. Sands (Mobile; retired, 19 oct 1864); Majors Cullen A. Battle (promoted); Charles Forsyth (promoted); Robert M. Sands (wounded, Gettysburg; promoted); Richard Holmes Powell (Macon; wounded, Spotsylvania; resigned, 2 Feb 1865); and Adjutants Charles Forsyth (promoted); Isaiah A. Wilson (Macon; returned to Co. "D"); Alfred R. Murray (Mobile; transferred); Samuel B. Johnston (Macon; KIA, Seven Pines); Mirabeau B. Swanson (Macon; retired, 11 Aug 1862); Alexander H. Pickett (Macon; transferred); and David R. Dunlap (Mobile; wounded, Cedar Creek)
Captains and counties from which the companies came:
- Co. "A", Mobile Cadets (Mobile): Robert M. Sands (promoted); Thomas Casey Witherspoon (wounded, Sharpsburg, and captured)
- Co. "B" (Mobile): William H. Hartwell (resigned, 26 April 62); John R. Simpson (wounded, Sharpsburg; resigned, 26 Jan 63); Arthur F. Robbins (wounded)
- Co. "C", Tuskegee Light Infantry (Macon): William G. Swanson (dropped, 1 May 62); Robert L. Mayes (KIA, Seven Pines); Charles J. Bryan (wounded, Malvern Hill; resigned, 10 June 63); William Thomas Bilbro (KIA, Spotsylvania); Timothy Alexander Etheridge (wounded)
- Co. "D", Southern Rifles (Macon): Richard H. Powell (promoted); Edward Troup Randall (wounded, Chancellorsville; retired, 13 May 64); John R. McGowan (wounded, Spotsylvania; retired, 30 Jan 65)
- Co. "E", Washington Light Infantry (Mobile): Archibald Gracie (promoted); John W. Chester (wounded, Seven Pines; mortally wounded, Winchester); John T. Huggins
- Co. "F" (Montgomery): F. Winston Hunter (resigned, 31 Oct 64); Watkins Phelan (wounded, Seven Pines; KIA, Petersburg); Wade A. McBryde
- Co. "G", Montgomery Free Blues (Montgomery): William G. Andrews (resigned, 13 Aug 61) [Part of this company transferred to artillery at the end of 1 year; apparently part of Co. "H" was transferred to fill this vacancy in Co. "G"]
- Co. "H" (Lowndes): Malachi Ford Bonham (wounded, Gettysburg, Winchester); Cornelius Robinson (resigned, 26 Sept 61)
- Co. "I" ( Coosa and Autauga): Edward S. Ready (wounded, Seven Pines, Boonsboro and captured there; detached and promoted); Louis H. Hill (resigned); Benjamin F. K. Melton
- Co. "K" (Mobile): Louis T. Woodruff (promoted to Lt. Col., 36th AL, 8 May 62); John K. Hoyt (resigned, 4 Nov 63); George H. Dunlap
- Co. "L", Dixie Eagles (Macon, 1862): J. W. D. Jelks (died in service, Richmond, 30 June 62); Richard W. H. Kennon (wounded, Malvern Hill; retired, 6 Oct 63); Francis M. Germany (wounded, Gettysburg; retired); Robert T. Rutherford
The Fifth Alabama Infantry was organized at Montgomery, 5 May 1861, with recruits from the counties of Barbour, Clarke, Dallas, Greene, Lowndes, Monroe, Pickens, Sumter, and Talladega. It moved to Pensacola and a few days after, it proceeded to Virginia and took post near Manassas Junction in the brigade of Gen'l Richard Ewell. It was in the skirmish at Farr's Cross Roads and was on the field (but not engaged) at 1st Manassas. It remained in the vicinity of Manassas during the fall and winter, and Gen'l Robert E. Rodes became the brigade commander in October -- the 6th and 12th Alabama, and 12th Mississippi being the other regiments in the brigade. Moving with the army to Yorktown in March 1862, it there reenlisted and reorganized. It was under fire at Yorktown and was on the field at Williamsburg. At Seven Pines, the regiment engaged for the first time, losing 27 k and 128 w our of 660 men present. The 5th was hotly engaged at Cold Harbor and Malvern Hill, losing 15 k and 58 w. It was not at 2nd Manassas but moved into Maryland and fought at Boonsboro and Sharpsburg, losing 11 k and 39 w. It was in line of battle on the crest and witnessed Union Gen'l Ambrose Burnside's repulse at Fredericksburg. At Chancellorsville, where its flag was captured by members of the 111th Pennsylvania Regiment, it was in the line under Gen'l Rodes that swept everything before it (but lost 24 k, 133 w, and 121 missing). It moved into Maryland and Pennsylvania in the Gettysburg campaign, and its loss was severe in that battle (60% casualties among 317 present). Having wintered at Orange Court House, the 5th, now reduced to a skeleton, participated in the battles of The Wilderness and Spotsylvania without severe loss. It took part in the subsequent operations as the lines began to be drawn around Petersburg, losing slightly at 2nd Cold Harbor. It went with Gen'l Jubal Early into the Valley and across the Potomac, taking part in numerous engagements with the enemy and losing severely at Winchester. It soon after took its place in the trenches of Petersburg and wintered there. Only 4 officers and 53 men were at the final surrender at Appomattox, under Capt. T. J. Riley. Of 1719 names on the rolls, nearly 300 died in battle; 240 others died in the service, and 507 were discharged or transferred.
Field and staff Officers: Cols. Robert Emmett Rodes (Tuscaloosa, promoted); Allen Cadwallader Jones (Breene, until reorganized); Cristopher Cladius Pegues (Dallas, KIA, 1st Cold Harbor); Josephus Marion Hall (Clarke, wounded, Spotsylvania, and resigned); Edwin LaFayette Hobson (Greene); Lt. Cols. Allen Cadwallader Jones (promoted); John Tyler Morgan (Dallas, resigned); Josephus Marion Hall (promoted); Edwin Lafayette Hobson (promoted); Eugene Blackford (Barbour); and Majors John Tyler Morgan (promoted); H. A. Whiting (Tuscaloosa, transferred); Edwin Lafayette Hobson (promoted); Eugene Blackford (promoted); and Adjutants H. A. Whiting (promoted); Robert I. Smith (Mobile; until reorganized); and Charles J. Pegues (Dallas).
Captains, and counties from which the companies came:
- Co. "A" (Clarke): Josephus Marion Hall (promoted); Simson T. Woodward
- Co. "A" [subsequently, Co. "F"] (Dallas): Christopher Cladius Pegues (promoted); Elijah B. Moseley (resigned, 7 Dec 64); D. M. Hitt
- Co. "B" (Sumter): John H. Dent (until reorganization); N. R. E. Ferguson (KIA, The Wilderness); James H. Holmes
- Co. "C" (Pickens): Sydney H. Ferguson (until reorganization); Thad C. Belsher (wounded)
- Co. "D", Monroe Guards (Monroe): Giles Goode (died in service, 25 Sept 61); William A. Kilpatrick (until reorganization); Thomas M. Riley
- Co. "E" (Talladega): Charles M. Shelley (resigned, 10 April 62); William Thomas Renfro (KIA, Chancellorsville); N. S. McAfee (resigned, 26 May 64)
- Co. "F", Cahaba Rifles (Sumter): Robert P. Blount (resigned, 19 Sept 61); John R. Lee (died in service, 5 Dec 61); Thomas C. Elliott (until reorganization); James V. Tutt (wounded, Seven Pines; resigned, 12 Aug 62); George W. Reed (KIA, Winchester)
- Co. "H", Warrior Guards (Tuscaloosa): Robert Emmett Rodes (promoted); William H. Fowler (resigned, 8 Jan 64) [The majority of this company organized into an artillery unit on 28 December 1861; the remaining 18 members united with Co. "I", 5th AL Infantry.]
- Co. "I" [subsequently, Co. "D"] (Greene): Edwin Lafayette Hobson (promoted); John W. Williams (captured, Boonsboro)
- Co. "K" (Lowndes, 1862): Daniel W. Johnson (KIA, 1st Cold Harbor); Thomas S. Herbert (resigned, 8 Aug 62); John M. Gilchrist (KIA, 2nd Cold Harbor) [this company organized 27 April 62 by transfer of a portion of Co. "E", 6th AL Infantry plus addition of new recruits]
- Co. "K" [subsequently, Co. "A"] (Barbour): Eugene Blackford (promoted, 17 July 62); Lewis S. Chitwood; George E. Macon (resigned, 4 July 63
The 6th Alabama Infantry Regiment was organized at Montgomery, on 6 May 1861, with 12 companies and about 1400 men recruited from Autauga, Henry, Jackson, Lowndes, Macon, Montgomery, Russell, and Wilson counties. It was first ordered to Corinth, and from there it went to Virginia. Reaching Manassas Junction, it was brigaded under Gen'l Richard Ewell. It was on the field but was not actively engaged in 1st Manassas, and it passed the fall and winter in that vicinity. Gen'l Robert Rodes succeeded Ewell in command of the brigade. in the spring, it moved to Yorktown with the army and was there reorganized and reenlisted for the war. It was on the field at Williamsburg but not under fire. At Seven Pines, the regiment took a prominent part, losing 102 k and 282 w out of 632 engaged (59%; the brigade lost 1296 out of about 2500). It again took a conspicuous part at Mechanicsville, 1st Cold Harbor, and Malvern Hill, with casualties. It was in the advance movement across the Potomac and lost slightly at Boonsboro. At Sharpsburg, it lost 52k and 104 w. The regiment was present but did not take part at Fredericksburg. With its brigade companions (3rd, 5th, 12th, and 26th regiments, Col. O'Neal commanding), the regiment fought at Chancellorsville, again with casualties (156). It participated in the Pennsylvania campaign with the brigade under Gen'l Battle, but with severe losses (382 engaged; casualties of more than 50%). Having wintered near Orange Courthouse, the regiment was at The Wilderness, where it lost considerably; and it was badly cut up at Spotsylvania. It took part in the Valley campaign of Gen'l Jubal Early and suffered casualties at Winchester. At Cedar Creek, many of the regiment were captured. Moving back to Petersburg, it was placed in Fort Mahone and was almost continuously under fire until it surrendered at Appomattox with 4 officers and 80 men, commanded by Lt. Col. Culver. Of 2109 names on its rolls, nearly 400 were killed in battle, 243 died of disease in service, and another 675 were discharged or transferred.
Field and staff officers: Cols. John Jacob Seibels (Montgomery; until reorganization); John Brown Gordon (Jackson; wounded, Sharpsburg; promoted); James N. Lightfoot (Henry; wounded, Chancellorsville, Spotsylvania); Lt. Cols. Benjamin Hurt Baker (Russell; resigned); John Brown Gordon (promoted); James J. Willingham (Lowndes; KIA, Seven Pines); James Newell Lightfoot (wounded, Sharpsburg; promoted); Augustus Manly Gordon (Jackson; KIA, Chancellorsville); George W. Hooper (Russell; accidentally disabled; retired); Isaac F. Culver (Henry; wounded, Winchester); Majors John Brown Gordon (promoted); S. Perry Nesmith (Lowndes; KIA, Seven Pines); Augustus Manly Gordon (promoted); George W. Hooper (promoted); Isaac F. Culver (wounded, Sharpsburg; promoted); and Adjutants George Goldthwaite (Montgomery; resigned); Pace (Georgia; transferred); John Whit Thomas (Henry; KIA, Spotsylvania); Edgar Watson (Montgomery; KIA, Farmville).
Captains, and counties from which the companies came:
- Co. "A", Henry Grays (Henry): Alexander C. Gordon (resigned, 21 Nov 61); James Newell Lightfoot (promoted); Isaac F. Culver (wounded, Boonsboro; promoted); Ervin M. Price (resigned, 21 Oct 62); Thomas Reese Lightfoot (KIA, Winchester); Sidney A. Willcoxon; Reuben A. Atkinson
- Co. "B" [subsequently, Co. "L"] (Macon): John M. Kennedy (until reorganization); William L. Rowe (wounded, Winchester)
- Co. "C" [subsequently, Co. "I"] (Wilcox): George Lynch (until reorganization); Joshua A. Kimbrough (KIA, 19 Sept 62); John B. Deloach (resigned, 11 Jan 64); James L. Fisher (resigned, 16 March 63)
- Co. "D" [subsequently, Co. "E"] (Montgomery): Gabriel B. DuVal (resigned, 16 Dec 61); Milton L. Kirkpatrick (until reorganization); James Mathew Fox (KIA, Seven Pines); Ephraim M. Gorse (died in service, 17 June 63); John W. Burton (wounded, Gettysburg, and captured); Watt A. Waller
- Co. "E" [subsequently, Co. "M"] (Lowndes): James J. Willingham (promoted); Milledge L. Bowie (wounded, Sharpsburg, Spotsylvania; retired); Daniel W. Johnson (transferred to Co. "K", 5th AL)
- Co. "F" [subsequently, Co. "K"] (Jackson): William T. Gunter (until reorganization; promoted to Major, 1st AL Infantry Battalion); William B. Hunt (wounded, Seven Pines, Gettysburg; KIA, Cedar Creek, 19 Oct 64); Isaac Franklin Culver (promoted)
- Co. "G" [subsequently, Co. "H"] (Montgomery): Samuel G. Hardaway (until reorganization); John B. McCarty (KIA, Seven Pines); John Lawler (resigned, 18 April 63); Thomas C. Slattery (retired, 24 April 64); James J. Kane
- Co. "H" [subsequently, Co. "C"] (Russell): James Fleming Waddell (until reorganization); Augustus S. Flournoy (KIA, Seven Pines); Rinaldo M. Greene (wounded, The Wilderness, Winchester)
- Co. "I", Raccoon Roughs [subsequently, Co. "D"] (Jackson): William L. Gordon (until reorganization); Augustus Manly Gordon (wounded, Seven Pines; promoted); Joseph H. Russell (retired, 24 Nov 63)
- Co. "J", Russell Volunteers [subsequently, Co. "F"] (Russell): Walter H. Weems (until reorganization); Robert R. Barnett; George W. Hooper (promoted); Nathaniel S. Black (resigned, 16 March 65
- Co. "K", Columbia Blues [subsequently, Co. "A"] (Henry): Thomas J. Smith (resigned, 13 Sept 61); Thomas H. Bell (KIA, Seven Pines); A. F. Powers (retired, 29 April 64)
- Co. "L", Autauga Rifles [subsequently, Co. "A"] (Autauga): Thomas A. Davis (appointed surgeon); William F. Davis (resigned, 26 Feb 62); Green Hill Thompson
The 12th Alabama Regiment was organized at Richmond in July 1861, with members from Montgomery and Mobile, and Coffee, Coosa, De Kalb, Jackson, Macon, Morgan, and Pike counties. It was at once moved to the "Potomac front" and first brigaded under General Richard Ewell of Virginia, who was soon after succeeded by General Robert Rodes, of Tuscaloosa. The regiment was near Manassas during the fall and winter, and it moved to Yorktown in the spring, 1862. It was under fire there and suffered lightly at Williamsburg. At Seven Pines, the regiment was in the advance that opened the battle, and it stormed the redoubt held by General Silas Casey's division, carrying three lines of works by successive charges, and losing 70 killed and 141 wounded. It participated to some extent in the other battles before Richmond (1862), and mustered 120 men for duty after the battle of Malvern Hill. Still under Rodes, and in General Daniel H. Hill's Division, and brigaded with the 3rd, 5th, 6th, and 26th Alabama regiments, the 12th was in the advance into Maryland (fall, 1862). It bore a conspicuous part at Boonsboro, and also at Sharpsburg (Antietam), losing in these battles 27 killed, 69 wounded, and 33 missing. Retiring into Virginia with the army, the regiment wintered (1862-1863) on the Rappahannock. It was under fire but not actively engaged at Fredericksburg; but it was in the resistless column of Rodes at Chancellorsville (spring, 1863), where Col. Edward O'Neal led the brigade, and where the 12th charged 3 lines of breastworks and was badly mutilated. It skirmished at Brandy Station, and again led the way over the Potomac. At Gettysburg, it was on the extreme left and pressed the enemy in confusion through the town, then supported General George Pickett's assault, and afterwards covered the rear. After the army retired into Virginia, the 12th was engaged in several skirmishes -- at Warrenton Springs, Turkey Run, etc. The winter (1864) was passed near Orange Court House, and the regiment, Gen. Cullen Battle now commanding the brigade, was hotly engaged at The Wilderness and Spotsylvania, and in the continuous skirmishing of Grant's advance movement to Cold Harbor. The 12th then again marched into Maryland when General Jubal Early threatened Washington. It participated at Winchester with very severe loss, and in the further operations of the corps in the Valley. On its return to Petersburg, it took part (now in General John Gordon's corps) in the struggles around that city, and surrendered at Appomattox in April, 1865. Of the original 1196, about 50 surrendered at Appomattox. And of the 321 recruits received, about 70 were there. Nearly 250 men died of wounds from battle; about 200 died of disease; and 202 were discharged. The battle-flag of the regiment was taken to Mobile after the war and is probably still there.
Field and staff officers: Cols. Robert Tignall Jones (Perry; KIA, Seven Pines); Bristor Brown Gayle (Morgan; KIA, Boonsboro); Samuel Bonneau Pickens (SC; wounded, Spotsylvania, Winchester); Lt. Cols. Theodore O'Hara (KY; transferred); Bristor Brown Gayle (promoted); Samuel Bonneau Pickens (wounded, Boonsboro; promoted, 14 Sept 62); John Chapman Goodgame (Coosa); Majors Edward Dorr Tracy (Madison; transferred); John Canty Brown (Coffee; resigned, 6 March 1862); Bristor Brown Gayle (promoted); Samuel Bonneau Pickens (promoted, 1 June 62); John Chapman Goodgame (promoted); Adolph Proskauer (Mobile; wounded, Chancellorsville, Spotsylvania; retired, 12 Jan 1865); and Adjutants Samuel Bonneau Pickens (promoted); Junius L. Walthall (Mobile; transferred); and L. Gayle (VA; retired, 13 March 1865)
Captains, and counties from which the companies came:
- Co. "A", Garde Lafayette (Mobile): George Heuilly (until reorganization); Jules A. L'Etondal (died in service, 5 Feb 65); Frederick H. Rogers (wounded, Winchester)
- Co. "B", Coosa Volunteers (Coosa): Joseph H. Bradford (until reorganization); John C. Goodgame (promoted); Henry Winston Cox (KIA, Chancellorsville); Patrick Thomas (KIA, Appomattox)
- Co. "C", Independent Rifles (Mobile): Augustus Stykes (resigned); Adolph Proskauer (promoted); Frederick C. Fischer; Ernest Karcher
- Co. "D", Coffee County Rangers (Coffee): John C. Brown (promoted); I. J. Horn (resigned, resigned, 20 April 64); Exton Tucker (KIA, Sharpsburg); James T. Davis (KIA, Gettysburg); J. McCassells (KIA, The Wilderness)
- Co. "E" (DeKalb): Robert W. Higgins (resigned, 19 Oct 61); Lorenzo D. Patterson (resigned); William L. Maroney (resigned, 15 Jan 63); John Rogers (KIA, Spotsylvania); A. Majors (KIA, Snicker's Gap)
- Co. "F" (Macon): Robert Fulwood Ligon (until reorganization); Robert H. Keeling (KIA, Seven Pines); John W. McNeeley (wounded, Chancellorsville; retired, 17 Sept 64); Robert Emory Park (wounded, Gettysburg, Winchester, and captured)
- Co. "G",North Alabama Sharpshooters (Jackson): A. S. Bibb (until reorganization); P. D. Rose (wounded, Gettysburg); Daniel Butler
- Co. "H", Magnolia Rifles (Morgan): Bristor Brown Gayle (promoted); C. A. Darwin (KIA, Seven Pines); Augustus Elzey Hewlett (wounded, Winchester, and captured); Mat B. Robinson (resigned, 7 Oct 62)
- Co. "I", Southern Foresters (Mobile): William T. Walthall (promoted); John Joseph Nicholson (wounded, Seven Pines, The Wilderness)
- Co. "K" (Macon): William H. C. Price (until reorganization); Daniel H. Garrison (KIA, Sharpsburg); Thomas W. Fitzgerald (KIA, Chancellorsville); Ezekiel H. Rowell
The 26th Alabama Infantry Regiment was formed at Tuscumbia in December, 1861, using the 7-company 3rd AL Infantry Battalion as a nucleus. Men were recruited from Fayette, Marion, Tuscaloosa, Walker, and Winston counties. Two companies under Major J. S. Garvin were soon ordered to Ft. Donelson and captured in that fight on 16 February 1862. After being exchanged, they joined the regiment in Virginia. It was in Gen'l Gabriel James Rains' Brigade at Yorktown, under fire but with few casualties. After moving up to Richmond from Williamsburg, the regiment was assigned to Rodes', O'Neal's, and Battle's Brigade, Army of Northern Virginia. It lost 22% of its number at Seven Pines and was reduced to half strength at the end of the Peninsular Campaign. As the army crossed the Potomac, the 26th was in the van and engaged in both Boonsboro and Sharpsburg, losing 10 k and 45 w in those struggles. Wintering on the Rappahannock, the 26th was present at Fredericksburg. It was then in the flank attack with Jackson's Corps at Chancellorsville (116 casualties), Col. O'Neal leading the brigade. The 26th moved to Gettysburg and fought there with losses of 7k and 58w, with 65 missing, They retired with the army into Virginia and skirmished at Kelly's Ford and Mine Run. During the winter, the Alabama legislature petitioned to have the regiment sent home for recruiting. By February, 1864, the regiment was stationed at Andersonville, GA, guarding Union prisoners of war. In the summer (June), the 26th was attached to Brig. Gen'l James Cantey's Brigade and fought with the Army of Tennessee from Atlanta to Bentonville. It moved with Gen'l John Bell Hood into Tennessee where it was badly hurt at Nashville. Only a remnant wurrendered at Greensboro, North Carolina, to which place it had been transferred.
Field and staff officers: Cols. William Russell Smith (Tuscaloosa; elected to state legislature); Edward Asbury O'Neal (wounded, Seven Pines, Boonsboro, Chancellorsville); Lt. Col. John Springer Garvin (Tuscaloosa; wounded, Chancellorsville, Franklin); William Henry Hunt (died in service, 20 June 1862; William C. Reeder (dropped, 3 Nov 1862); Majors Raymond Dial Reddin (Fayette; resigned, 4 Dec 1862); David F. Bryan (Fayette; dropped, 17 Feb 1865); and Adjutants: D. C. Moses (dropped, 27 March 1862); Edmund P. Major; and Samuel H. Moore (Madison)
Captains, and counties from which the companies came:
- Co. "A" (Fayette): J. H. Moore (resigned, 1 July 62); E. M. Vandiver (wounded, Chancellorsville)
- Co. "B" (Fayette): James S. McCoy (died in service, 22 July 62); John Y. Caldwell; Lt. Alexander Thompson
- Co. "C" (Fayette): E. B. Newton (resigned, 1 July 62); David McDaniel; James M. Harton (dropped, 17 Feb 65); Fill Treadaway
- Co. "D" (Fayette): Isaac H. Sanders (resigned, 11 Aug 62); Thomas Taylor (KIA, 3 May 63); David Ballenger (resigned, 12 oct 63); D. M. Gideon
- Co. "E" (Fayette): H. H. Reid (resigned, 11 Nov 63); Sidney B. Smith
- Co. "F" (Marion): David F. Bryan (promoted); Raymond Dial Redden (promoted); E. M. Turner
- Co. "G" (Marion): Silas Hosmer; A. B. Faver (resigned, 7 Feb 63); A. J. Burchfield
- Co. "H" (Marion): John S. White (resigned, 20 March 62); James W. White
- Co. "I" (Fayette): David F. Bryan (promoted); Lewis M. Wimberly (resigned, Jan 62); William H. Lindsey; Frank M. Haly; Allen B. Lowry (resigned, 27 Oct 62)
- Co. "K" (Fayette): Edward C. Leach; Frank M. Smith
The 61st Alabama Infantry [also known as the 59th Alabama Infantry] was organized at Pollard in September, 1863. A number of the men, from Barbour, Chambers, Coffee, Henry, and Macon counties, had been in camps of instruction for some time under the conscript law of congress, while the officers were mostly veterans. The regiment was first brigaded under Gen'l James H. Clanton, but in January 1864, it was ordered to Virginia. Reaching Orange Courthouse, the 61st took the place of the 26th Alabama in Cullen A. Battle's Brigade, Robert Rodes' Division. The 61st was first under fire at The Wilderness where its loss was severe, but it captured a battery, killed Union Gen'l Jenkins, and almost annihilated his New York Zouave Brigade. At Spotsylvania, the 61st lost heavily in casualties and prisoners during the several days' fighting. Its losses were not so severe at 2nd Cold Harbor, and it soon after moved into the Valley with Gen'l Jubal Early and crossed into Maryland. At Snicker's Gap and Winchester, the loss of the 61st was severe; it was even greater at Fisher's Hill. Rejoining the main army, the regiment took its place in the trenches at Petersburg and lost continually, especially in prisoners at Hare's Hill. On the retreat to Appomattox, the 61st fought much of the time and surrendered there with 27 men under Capt. August B. Fannin.
Field and staff officers: Col. William G. Swanson (Macon); Lt. Cols. Louis H. Hill (Coosa; captured, Petersburg); N. Smith Graham (re-appointed); Major William E. Pinckard (Macon; captured, Petersburg); and Adjutants Charles T. Pollard (Montgomery; resigned); and Thomas T. Greene (Montgomery).
Captains, and counties from which the companies came:
- Co. "A":William E. Pinckard (promoted); James Walker Fannin (Macon; captured, Spotsylvania)
- Co. "B": Robert A. Peterson (Macon; retired, 3 June 64); William H. Philpot (Macon; captured, Petersburg)
- Co. "C": Julius P. Haggerty (Coosa; retired); Chris C. Long (Macon)
- Co. "D": John F. Barganier (Butler; retired, 26 Aug 64); William J. Porter (captured, Spotsylvania, and died as POW)
- Co. "E": Eugenius F. Baber (Macon; retired, 13 May 64); Augustus B. Fannin (Macon; wounded, 2nd Cold Harbor, Winchester)
- Co. "F": Alfred F. Zachary (Chambers; wounded, Spotsylvania; retired); Richard W. Allen (Chambers)
- Co. "G": Archibald D. McCaskill (Coffee; KIA, The Wilderness); Nathan R. Joiner (KIA, Hare's Hill)
- Co. "H": Sidney B. Paine (Macon; retired, 20 Sept 64); William A. Campbell (Macon; wounded; resigned, 25 Feb 65)
- Co. "I": James S. Hastings (Montgomery; retired, 25 July 64); Andrew J. Slaughter (Macon; wounded, Snicker's Gap)
- Co. "K" (1864): Henry L. Jones; James E. Jones; John D. Grantham (Henry)
Comments and corrections, additions, etc., are welcomed. Email: Ken Jones.
You may visit other Alabama brigade pages:
- Clayton's (Holtzclaw's') Brigade, [18th, 32nd, 36th, 38th, and 58th Regiments]
- Gardner's (Deas') Brigade, [17th Battalion; 19th, 22nd, 25th, 39th, and 50th Regiments]
- Gracie's Brigade, [23rd Battalion; 41st, 43rd, 59th, and 60th Regiments]
- Hilliard's Legion [1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th Battalions]
- Law's Brigade, [4th, 15th, 44th, 47th, and 48th Regiments]
- Morgan's Cavalry Brigade, [1st, 3rd, 4th (Russell's), 9th, and 51st Regiments]
- Tracy's (Pettus') Brigade, [20th, 23rd, 30th, 31st, and 46th Regiments]
- Wilcox' Brigade, [8th, 9th, 10th, 11th, and 14th Regiments]