Echols' Company ["Swanson Guards"], Alabama Conscripts
The 1st Alabama Conscript Regiment was formed in April 1862 for six months. It was stationed at Camp Watts, near Notasulga, AL, until the end of the year. It was commanded by Major William G. Swanson and consisted of ten companies. Echols' company, the Swanson Guards, was formed the following year from attachments of the 1st Alabama Conscripts. It was commanded by 1st Lt. John H. Echols and stationed originally at Montgomery between April and August, 1863. The company was transferred to Fort Morgan that fall.
Officers: 1st Lts. John H. Echols; Edward R. Spalding; 2nd Lts. Edward P. Hendree (resigned, 26 Sept 63); Sylvanus T. Shaw; Fitzpatrick M. Trannim; Robert A. Peterson (transferred, 30 July 63); and John H. Alexander
The 1st Alabama Infantry regiment was the first to be organized under an act of the State legislature authorizing the enlistment of troops for 12 months. The companies rendezvoused at Pensacola in February and March 1861, and about the 1st of April organized and elected regimental officers. The men were recruited from Barbour, Lowndes, Macon, Pike, Talladega, Tallapoosa, and Wilcox counties. Transferred to the army of the Confederate States soon after, it remained on duty at Pensacola for a year, occupied chiefly in manning the batteries and taking part in bombardments on 23 Nov 61 and 1 Jan 1862. A detachment was in the night fight on Santa Rosa Island. As the oldest regiment in Confederate service, it was the first called on to reenlist for the war, at the end of the first year, and seven of the companies did so. Ordered to Tennessee, the regiment, 1000 strong, reached Island No. 10 on 12 March 1862, and it joined Gen'l Johnston at Alatoona. In Gen'l James Cantey's Brigade, it fought at New Hope Church and was afterwards transferred to Gen'l William Quarles' Brigade in which it served until war's end. It participated at Kenesaw Mountain, lost considerably at Peach Tree Creek. In the assault against enemy lines at Atlanta, 28 July, the regiment won fresh renown but lost half its strength. They moved with Gen'l John Bell Hood into Tennessee and lost heavily at Franklin and Nashville. Transferred to North Carolina, they fought at Averysboro and Bentonville, and about 100 men surrendered at Goldsboro. Upwards of 3000 names were on the rolls at different times during the war, including those companies that did not re-enlist.
Field officers: Cols. Henry D. Clayton (until reorganization); Isaiah G. W. Steedman (captured at Island No. 10 and Port Hudson); Lt. Cols. I. G. W. Steedman (promoted); Michael B. Locke (wounded, captured at Port Hudson); Majors Jere N. Williams (until reorganization), Samuel L. Knox (captured at Island No. 10 and Port Hudson, but escaped from the latter; wounded at Atlanta; KIA at Franklin while commanding regiment); and Adjutants S. H. Dent (resigned), Samuel D. Steedman (captured at Island No. 10 and Port Hudson).
The Second Alabama Infantry Regiment (the "Magnolia Regiment") was composed of companies raised in Calhoun, Clarke, Franklin, Jackson, Mobile, Monroe, and Pickens counties, which flocked to the seaboard at the first call of the State and which enlisted for one year. They organized at Fort Morgan in April, 1861, and remained in garrison there until March 1862, serving as infantry and manning the heavy artillery. Ordered to Tennessee, the term of service expired at Fort Pillow and the regiment was disbanded. Two or three companies joined other organizations almost intact, but most of the men distributed themselves among new regiments.
Field and staff officers: Col. Hary Maury (Mobile); Lt. Col. Hal C. Bradford (Jackson); Majors Phillander Morgan (Talladega; resigned); Daniel P. Forney (Calhoun); and Adjutant J. B. McClung (Madison).
The 3rd Alabama Infantry Reserves Regiment was formed by the consolidation on 16 August 1864 of independent companies which were mustered in between 15 April and 27 July 1864. Members of the unit were very young men,taken from Shelby, Talladega, Wedowee, Tuscaloosa County, Selma, and Columbiana. An election for field officers was held at Selma on 5 Aug 1864, later set aside, where Major W. D. Bulger claimed command. However, officers were later appointed by Maj. Gen'l Jones Withers. Following the organization of the regiment at Selma, it was sent to Mobile on board the steamer Coquette. They were first involved in the defenses of Mobile, but they did not participate in any fighting. In February 1865, the unit was ordered back to Selma where six companies were assigned to guard duty at Cahaba, a POW camp. The following month, it was reported to be at Montgomery, approximately 300 strong. As a part of the Department of Alabama, Mississippi and East Louisiana, they were surrendered at Citronelle, AL, on 4 May 1865, by Lt. Gen'l Richard Taylor, although some of the regiment had been transferred in the mean time to Co. "I" of the 63rd AL Infantry, itself formerly the 2nd Infantry Regiment, Alabama Reserves.
Field and Staff Officers: Col. William McLin Brooks (resigned, 24 Jan 1865); Lt. Col. William Douglass Bulger; Major Whitfield Walker; Asst. Surgeons J. R. Coffman (relieved) and John R. Little; Ass't Quartermaster Joseph D. Neeley; and Adjutant F. M. Eckford.
The 3rd Alabama Infantry Reserves Battalion was organized in August of 1864 and assigned to the District of the Gulf, Dept. of Alabama, Mississippi and East Louisiana, in first Liddell's, then Withers', and finally Clanton's Brigade. The battalion was consolidated with the 4th Alabama Infantry Reserves Battalion in March of 1865 and designated as the 65th Infantry Regiment.
Field Officers: Lt. Col. Edward M. Underhill (1842-1904; promoted Col., 65th AL); Major E. T. Starke
The 4th Alabama Infantry Battalion (also known as the 10th Infantry Battalion) was organized in Nashville with three companies in November 1861. It was redesignated as Snodgrass' 16th Infantry Battalion on 8 May 1862. The battalion was first assigned to Gen'l John P. Breckinridge's Brigade, Reserves, Central Army of Kentucky, Department #2 (February through March 1862), and it was then assigned to R. P. Trabue's Brigade, Reserve Corps, Army of the Mississippi, Dept. #2 (March through May, 1862). It fought at the Battle of Shiloh (6-7 April 1862) and in the Corinth Campaign (April through June, 1862).
Field officer: Major James M. Clifton.
The 4th Regiment, Alabama Reserves, was organized at Mobile during the fall of 1864 by consolidating the 1st, 3rd, and 4th AL Reserve Battalions. The men, between the ages of 16 and 18, were from Mobile and Conecuh, Coosa, Dale and Macon counties. The unit was assigned to the District of the Gulf and became a part of the Mobile defense force. In December 1864, the regiment moved to East Mississippi, but after a few weeks it was ordered to Montgomery. With a force of about 300 men, it saw action at Girard. Most of the unit were captured, and those few remaining men were included in the surrender of the Dept. of Alabama, Mississippi, and East Louisiana.
Some of Co. "B" and "C" had prior service in the 1st Mobile Volunteers Regiment, or in the Alabama Militia. Co. "D" also served as Co. "D", City Battalion.
Field and Staff Officers: Col. William M. Stone; Lt. Cols. Stewart W. Cayce, E. M. Underhill; Majors S. B. Waring, and S. F. Strickland.
[Compiled from information supplied by Greg J. Griffin, Helena, AL]
On 10 August 1861, Confederate Capt. Thomas B. Bush was sent home to Jacksonville, AL, to recruit and organize a new company for war. This company became Co. "B" (Calhoun Sharpshooters) of the 5th AL Battalion. Once formed, the Sharpshooters moved by rail to Richmond to join the Army of Northern Virginia.
The 5th Alabama Infantry Battalion organized with three companies near Dumfries, VA, in December 1861 with men from Calhoun, Mobile, and Sumter counties. The unit was designated the 5th Infantry Battalion on 22 October 1862; it was attached to Whiting's Division then was soon transferred to John Bell Hood's. Sent to Richmond, the battalion was placed under the command of Brig. Gen'l James J. Archer and fought at Mechanicsville, 1st Cold Harbor, and Frazier's Farm, with heavy loss. It was engaged at 2nd Manassas with loss, and with like result at Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville.
At the end of June, 1863, Gen'l Lee was marching his army north into Pennsylvania. Archer's Brigade (1st, 7th, 14th TN Regients, 13th AL Regiment, and 5th AL Battalion). On the morning of 1 July, the men were moved out along the Chambersburg Pike toward Gettysburg, four abreast, until they came in sight of a squadron of Union cavalry. The men were ordered to cross Marsh Creek and deploy a skirmish line. A shot rang out when the Union troopers spotted the Confederates. The Union cavalry retreated, but their artillery, located at the edge of town, opened. Archer's Brigade, with the 5th Battalion in advance, rushed to a shallow creek, Willoughby run, until the Union resistance began to stiffen. Nonetheless, the Confederates drove the cavalry across the run and started up a hill where they ran into the men of the Iron Brigade where a hard fought and unequal contest began. In the fierce fighting, the battalion lost over 30% of the 135 it had engaged. Reduced to only three companies, the battalion was placed on provost duty in A. P. Hill's 3rd Corps. It remained in Virginia until the end, losing several on the march to Appomattox, where it surrendered 125 men (including 55 in Co. "B").
Field officers: Lt. Cols. F. B. Shepherd; Henry H. Walker; and Major A. Sebastian Van de Graaff (Sumter; wounded, before Richmond, Fredericksburg)
The 7th Alabama Infantry was organized at Pensacola, 18 May 1861, with 8 infantry and 2 mounted companies. It was composed of companies that had rendezvoused at that place from the counties of Autauga, Barbour, Butler, Calhoun, Chambers, Cherokee, Dallas, Jackson, Lauderdale, Madison, Montgomery, Pike, and Wilcox. It remained on duty there until November when it was ordered to Chattanooga, and then a month later, it was sent to Bowling Green. It was in a temporary brigade under Col. S. A. M. Wood, and it fell back with the army to Corinth. The time of service of most of the companies expired after 12 months during the first week in April, 1862, and the regiment disbanded. However, the two mounted companies from Autauga and Lauderdale retained their organization and fought at Shiloh, as did other men from the regiment. The mounted companies then became part of the 3rd Alabama Cavalry, and the majority of the remaining men and officers joined other organizations.
Field and staff officers: Col. Sterling A. M. Wood (Lauderdale; promoted); Lt. Col. John G. Coltart (Madison); Major Alfred A. Russell (Jackson); and Adjutants Simeon Dean (Chambers; promoted); S. A. McClung (Madison; transferred to Gen'l Wood's staff) John J. D.
- Muster roll: Co. "K" (available via email)
9th Alabama Infantry Battalion [See, 58th Alabama Infantry Regiment]
The 13th Alabama Infantry Regiment was organized at Montgomery, 19 July 1861, with men from Butler, Coosa, Elmore, Macon, Montgomery, Randolph, Talladega, Tallapoosa, and Wilcox counties. It at once proceeded to Virginia. Ordered to Yorktown, it was there brigaded under Gen'l Gabriel J. Rains. It lay at that place until the army fell back on Richmond the following spring. At Seven Pines, the regiment was engaged warmly and suffered 7 k and 45 w. Held in reserve during the battles in front of Richmond, it was nevertheless subjected there to a destructive fire from which it suffered severely (101 k and w). As part of Gen'l James J. Archer's Brigade, under Gen'l Alfred H. Colquitt of Georgia, the regiment took part in the first Maryland campaign, losing lightly at Boonsboro and then heavily at Sharpsburg. The winter was passed on the Rappahannock, and its monotony was relieved by the repulse of the Union Gen'l Ambrose Burnside at Fredericksburg, of which the 13th was a witness; and where it suffered lightly. Col. B. D. Fry led the brigade in the assault on Union Gen'l Joseph Hooker at Chancellorsville, and there the 13th lost 140 of the 460 men with which it went into the battle. It was in the Pennsylvania campaign, and at Gettysburg, the regiment suffered over 50% casualties of the 308 engaged. Retiring to Virginia, the 13th passed the winter of 1863-1864 mostly in camp. At The Wilderness, the regiment actively participated, and their loss was comparatively heavy. It took part in the subsequent operations around Petersburg, being now in the brigade of Gen'l John C. C. Sanders of Greene (8th, 9th, 10th, 11th, and 14th Alabama regiments) -- subsequently commanded by Gen'l W. H. Forney of Calhoun. Under Col. James Aiken, the remnant of 6 officers and 85 men surrendered at Appomattox. Of the 1245 men on the rolls, about 150 were killed in battle, or died of wounds; 275 died of disease; 64 were transferred; and 202 were discharged.
Field and staff officers: Cols. Birkett D. Fry (Tallapoosa; wounded, Seven Pines, Sharpsburg, Gettysburg; captured, Gettysburg; promoted); James Aiken (Randolph); Lt. Cols. Julius C. B. Mitchell (Montgomery; resigned); Reginald H. Dawson (Wilcox; resigned); William H. Betts (Macon; resigned); James Aiken (wounded, Chancellorsville, Bristow Station; promoted); Majors Samuel B. Marks (Montgomery; resigned); William H. Betts (promoted); James Aiken (promoted); John T. Smith (Randolph; KIA, Chancellorsville); and Adjutants James D. Clark (Wilcox; transferred to line); John Rentz (Wilcox; KIA, Sharpsburg); T. W. S. Hendon (Randolph; wounded, Chancellorsville; retired); L. P. Broughton (Butler; KIA, The Wilderness)
The 16th Alabama Infantry Battalion (also called the 4th Alabama Infantry Battalion; also numbered 15th; formerly Clifton's 4th or 10th Battalion) was organized at Corinth, Mississippi, during the spring of 1862. It contained six companies and was active in the defense of Vicksburg and Gen'l John P. Breckinridge's operations near Baton Rouge. It fought at Corinth under Gen'l Albert Rust, then was assigned to Gen'l Abraham Buford's Brigade, Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana. During February 1863, it merged into the 55th Alabama Regiment.
Field officers: Lt. Col. John Snodgrass; Majors G. L. Alexander; John H. Gibson.
The 16th Alabama Infantry regiment was assembled at Courtland, AL, on 6 August, 1861, and it contained men from Russell, Lauderdale, Lawrence, Franklin, Cherokee, and Marion counties. The unit was ordered to Knoxville, TN, then KY where it fought at Fishing Creek (lost 64 men) under General Felix Zollicoffer. Later it was assigned to General Sterling Wood's (with the 33rd AL, 44th TN, and 32nd and 33rd MS regiments), Mark Lowrey's (same regiments, with the 45th AL was added), and Charles Shelley's brigades. After taking part in the battles of Shiloh (lost 162 men) and Perryville (held in reserve, not actively engaged), the 16th participated in the campaigns of the Army of Tennessee from Murfreesboro to Atlanta (losses were 200 in the campaign), moved with Hood to TN, then saw action in NC. In September, 1861, the regiment totaled 867 effectives. It sustained 168 casualties at Murfreesboro, and lost fifty-nine percent of the 414 engaged at Chickamauga. During December, 1863, there were 302 present for duty and 202 arms. It lost 150 killed and wounded at Jonesboro and half its remaining force were disabled at Franklin and Nashville, including all officers. On 26 April 1865, about 50 officers and men surrendered, their unit having been consolidated with the 1st and 45th AL regiments.
Field officers: Cols. Frederick A. Ashford, A. H. Helvenston, and William B. Wood; and Lt. Colonels John W. Harris, Joseph J. May, and John H. McGaughy.
The 17th Alabama Infantry Regiment was organized at Montgomery in August, 1861. In November, it moved to Pensacola and was present at the bombardment there that month and again in January. In March 1862, the regiment was sent to western Tennessee where it was brigaded under J. K. Jackson of Georgia, with the 18th, 21st, and 24th Alabama regiments. The unit fought at Shiloh and lost 125 k and w. A month later, it was in the fight at Framington, with few casualties. In the autumn, when Gen'l Braxton Bragg moved into Kentucky, the 17th, weakened by illness, was left at Mobile. It was there drilled as heavy artillery and had charge of eight batteries on the shore of the bay. It remained at that post until March 1864 when it was ordered to Rome, GA. The brigade consisted of the 17th and 29th Alabama regiments, and the 1st and 26th Alabama and 37th Mississippi regiments were soon after added. The brigade was commanded at different times by Gen'l Cantey of Russell, Col. Murphey of Montgomery, Col. O'Neal of Lauderdale, and Gen'l Shelley of Talladega. The regiment was engaged at the Oostenaula bridge and in the three days' battle of Resaca, with severe loss. The 17th had its full share of the campaigning from Dalton to Jonesboro, fighting almost daily, especially at Cassville, New Hope, Kennesaw, Lost Mountain, and Atlanta. In the battle of Peachtree Creek, it lost 130 k and w, and on the 28th of July, 180 k and w. The entire loss from Resaca to Lovejoy's Station was 586, but few of whom were captured. The regiment moved into Tennessee with Gen'l John Bell Hood and lost two-thirds of its force at Franklin; a number of the remainder were captured at Nashville. A remnant moved into North Carolina and a part fought at Bentonville. It was then consolidated with the 29th and 33rd Alabama regiments, with E. P. Holcombe of Lowndes as colonel, J. F. Tate of Russell as lieutenant colonel, and Willis J. Milner of Butler as major. The regiment surrendered at Greensboro, NC, in April, 1865.
Field officers: Cols. Thomas H. Watts (Montgomery, resigned); R. C. Fariss (Montgomery, resigned); and Virgil S. Murphey (Montgomery, captured at Franklin); Lt. Cols. R. C. Fariss (promoted); Virgil S. Murphey (promoted); and Edward P. Holcombe (Lowndes, wounded at Resaca); and Majors Virgil S. Murphey (promoted) and Thomas J. Burnett (Butler, wounded at Atlanta).
The 21st Alabama Infantry Regiment was mustered into service on 13 October 1861, in Mobile, and remained at Hall's Mill and Fort Gaines until ordered to Fort Pillow in March 1862. It remained there a few days and then moved to Corinth where it was brigaded under Gen'l Adley Gladden. The regiment took part in the Battle of Shiloh where it lost six color-bearers in succession, and 200 k and w out of about 650 engaged. It was complimented in general orders. On the return to Corinth, the regiment was reorganized and extended in enlistment from one year to "for the war." The 21st was at Farmington, but with few casualties. In the summer, the regiment was ordered to Mobile and was on garrison duty at Fort Morgan and at Oven and Choctaw Bluffs. Non-commissioned officers and men of companies "G" and "H", predominantly of French and Spanish ancestry, were transferred to the 1st Louisiana Infantry Regiment, and two other companies joined the 21st on 24 March 1864.
While the regiment lay at Mobile, a "submarine," the H. L. Hunley, was constructed to operate against the blockading squadron. Direction of the project was handled by Engineers, Lt. W. A. Alexander and Lt. George E. Dixon, with several men from the regiment. After successful trials, Dixon and his men accompanied the Hunley to Charleston. There it went to sea on 17 February 1864 and blew up the USS Housatonic of the Federal blockading squadron. The Hunley and its crew were, however, lost at sea. Dixon was a Kentuckian by birth and an engineer by profession. (Additional information on the submarine, Hunley, or its recovery, may be found at the C.S.S. Hunley Submarine Recovery Information site, or at The Hunley Web Site.)
The 21st was at Pollard a short time under Gen'l James Cantey but was then ordered to the defenses of Mobile. Two companies were stationed at Fort Powell, where, with a loss of one killed, they withstood a bombardment of a fortnight from five gunboats and six mortar boats which attempted to force an entrance through Grant's Pass. Six companies of the regiment were captured at Fort Gaines, and two at Fort Morgan; but the two at Fort Powell blew up and evacuated that post. The men capturted at Fort Gaines were exchanged, the others were not. The remainder of the regiment was part of the garrison of Spanish Fort, where it lost about 10 k and 25 w. The 21st was surrendered at Cuba Station, Sumter County, 6 May 1865, and paroled at Meridian, MS, about 250 strong. The 21st was composed largely of artisans from Mobile, many of whom were detached to assist in the various government works; the remainder had been recruited from Baldwin, Greene, Marengo, Montgomery, and Washington counties. [Thanks to Larry A. Schultz for his assistance.]
Field and staff officers: Cols. James Crawford (Mobile; resigned, 30 April 1862); Charles D. Anderson (Mobile; captured, Fort Gaines); Lt. Cols. Andrew J. Ingersoll (Mobile; resigned, 27 March 1862); Stewart W. Cayce (Mobile; resigned, 19 may 1862); Charles Somerville Stewart (Mobile; KIA, Fort Morgan, 30 April 1863); James Madison Williams (Mobile); Majors Frederick Stewart (Mobile; resigned, 31 March 1862); James Madison Williams (promoted); Charles B. Johnston (Mobile; took oath of allegiance to US, 27 Dec 1864); and Adjutants Stewart W. Cayce (promoted); James M. Williams (transferred to line); George Vidmer (Mobile; wounded, Spanish Fort); Charles LeB. Collins (temporary); and Gideon M. Parker
The 24th Alabama Infantry Regiment was organized at Mobile in August 1861, with men from Clarke, Mobile, Pickens, Shelby, and Talladega counties. It remained at Fort Morgan until April 1862. It then moved to Corinth and was brigaded under Gen'l John K. Jackson of Georgia. The regiment was first under fire at Blackland and Farmington, with trifling loss. It shared the privations of the Kentucky campaign but was not engaged. Placed in the brigade of Gen'l Arthur M. Manigault of Scouth Carolina, with the 28th and 34th Alabama and two South Carolina regiments, the 24th took part at Murfreesboro where it lost 118 k and w. It moved back with the army to the line of Chattanooga. In the grand forward movement at Chicamauga, the regiment lost 200 k and w. It was engaged at Mission Ridge with about 25 casualties. After wintering at Dalton, the regiment fought all the way down from Crow Valley to Jonesboro, losing abou 300 men, principally in the casualties of battle. With the army, the 24th moved into Tennessee and was engaged at Columbia, Franklin, and Nashville, but without severe loss in either. The regiment was part of the army that proceeded to the Carolinas, and it was in the fight at Salisbury. Just before the surrender, it was consolidated with the 28th and 34th Alabama regiments, with J. C. Carter of Montgomery as Colonel, Starke H. Oliver of Mobile as Lt. Col., and P. G. Wood of Dallas as Major. At the time of the surrender, near High Point, North Carolina, it was in Sharp's Brigade, D. H. Hill's Division, Stephen D. Lee's Corps, and numbered about 125 men.
Field and staff officers: William A. Buck (Mobile; wounded, Murfreesboro; resigned); Newton N. Davis (Pickens; wounded, Franklin, and captured); Lt. Cols. William M. LeBaron (Mobile; resigned); William B. Dennett (Mobile; resigned); Newton N. Davis (promoted); Benjamin F. Sawyer (Talladega; retired); George A. Jennison (Mobile); Majors William B. Dennett (promoted); Newton N. Davis (promoted); Junius J. Pierce (Shelby); and Adjutants George A. Jennison (promoted); and George B. Enholm (Mobile)
- Photographs: Sgt. William Thomas Goff, Co. "I" [Photograph courtesy Deborah Stone Ward, Daniel Ward]
The 27th Alabama Infantry Regiment was organized at Fort Heiman, Tennessee, on 28 January 1862, a number of companies having flocked to that point in the winter of 1861 from Franklin, Lauderdale, Lawrence, Madison, Mobile, and Morgan counties. Ordered to Fort Henry, the regiment shared in the defence of that place, but it retired before the surrender, forming part of the garrison of Fort Donelson. It took part in the conflict there and was there surrendered, 16 February 1862. A number of the command were hospitalized and were not therefore captured. They organized into two companies, joined the 33rd Mississippi Regiment, and lost 8 k and 25 w at the Battle of Perryville. The main body of the regiment was exchanged on 4 September, 1862, and was ordered to Port Hudson where it was joined by the other two companies. It remained in that vicinity during the winteer and was brigaded under Gen'l Abraham Buford of Kentucky, William Loring's Division. At Baker's Creek, the 27th was engaged and then retired from the field with Loring's Division. It was then in the trenches at Jackson for 10 days, retreating with the army across the Pearl River. The regiment passed the winter at Canton, and in the spring of 1864 was sent to the vicinity of Tuscumbia to recruit, being greatly reduced in numbers. A detachment of the regiment crossed the Tennessee River in April 1864 and captured about 100 of the enemy. It was soon after ordered to Dalton and placed in Thomas Scott's Brigade with the 12th Louisiana, and 35th, 49th, 55th, and 57th Alabama regiments, Loring's Division, Alexander Stewart's Corps. The 27th was from that time forward sharing in the trials of the Army of Tennessee, fighting with much loss throughout the Atlanta Campaign, and forming part of the last Confederate wave at Franklin and Nashville. There were only a few who were present to move into the Carolinas, and the regiment was ultimately consolidated with the 35th, 49th, and 57th Alabama regiments. The remainder surrendered at Greensboro, North Carolina, 9 April 1865.
Field officers: Cols. Adolphus A. Hughes (Franklin; captured, Fort Donelson; died in service); James Jackson (Lauderdale; wounded, Kenesaw Mountain); Lt. Cols. James Jackson (captured, Fort Donelson; promoted); Edward McAlexander (Lauderdale); and Majors Edward McAlexander (captured, Fort Donelson; promoted); R. G. Wright (Franklin)
The 29th Alabama Infantry Regiment was organized at Pensacola in February, 1862, by the addition of two companies to the Fourth Alabama Battalion - a body of eight companies, which had been organized the autumn before at Montgomery. The regiment, recruited from Barbour, Bibb, Blount, Conecuh, Montgomery, Russell, Shelby, and Talladega counties, remained at Pensacola until it was evacuated, suffering much from diseases that usually afflict raw troops. It then lay between Pollard and Pensacola for over a year, when it was ordered to Mobile. The regiment was there from July 1863 to April 1864, except for a short time that it was at Pollard. The regiment joined the Army of Tennessee at Resaca with over 1,000 men, in time to initiate the Atlanta-Dalton campaign. It was brigaded with the 1st, 17th, and 26th Alabama, and 37th Mississippi regiments, commanded at different intervals by Col. Murphey of Montgomery, Gen'l O'Neal of Lauderdale, and Gen'l Shelley of Talladega. The 29th was engaged at the Battle of Resaca with a loss of about 100 k and w, out of 1100 men engaged. At New Hope Church, the loss was very heavy, and at Peach Tree Creek, the regiment was cut to pieces. On 28 July, near Atlanta, half of the regiment was killed and wounded in the fierce and protracted assault on the enemy's line. The 29th then moved into Tennessee with Gen'l John Bell Hood and lost very heavily in casualties at Franklin, and largely in casualties and prisoners at Nashville. A remnant of it moved into the Carolinas where it was engaged at Kinston and Bentonville with considerable loss. It was consolidated with the 1st and 17th Regiments early in 1865, and fewer than 90 men surrendered at Durham Station, Orange County, NC on 26 April 1865.
Field and Staff Officers: Cols. Jonathan R. F Tatnall (GA; transferred to the navy); John F. Conoley (Dallas); Lt. Cols. J. F. Conoley (promoted); Benjamin Morris (Barbour); Majors Benjamin Morris (promoted); Henry B. Turner (Talladega; wounded, Atlanta); Adjutants Lemuel D. Hatch (Greene; transferred); Benjamin H. Screws (Barbour; transferred to line); James Stephenson (Virginia)
The Thirty-third Alabama Infantry Regiment was organized at Pensacola, FL, on 23 April 1862, with men recruited from Butler, Coffee, Covington, Dale, and Montgomery counties. It proceeded to Corinth just after the Battle of Shiloh. Placed in the brigade commanded by Col. Hawthorn of Arkansas, the regiment remained at Tupelo untill the Kentucky Campaign began. It was part of the brigade of Gen'l Sterling A. M. Wood of Lauderdale, Gen'l Simon Buckner's Division, and was present at the capture of Munfordsville. At Perryville, the Thirty-third entered that conflict about 500 strong, and came out with but 88 rank and file. It came out of Kentucky with the army, and at Murfeesboro the loss of the regiment was comparatively large, for it was in Gen'l Patrick Cleburne's Division. The remainder of the winter was spent in camps near Tullahoma, and the regiment retired behind the Tennessee River during the summer. In the grand forward movement on the enemy's line at Chickamauga, the Thirty-third lost 149 casualties. Gen'l Mark Perrin Lowrey of Mississippi relieved Gen'l Wood after the latter was wounded and assumed command of the brigade [16th, 33rd Mississippi regiments, and J. H. Gibson's (18th AL) and Newman's (TN) battalions] the Thirty-third was effectively engaged at Missionary Ridge without loss. It was part of the wall of fire that checked the exultant federals at Ringgold Gap, where it lost but one man. The regiment passed the winter at Dalton, and was in the incessant battle from there to Atlanta, fighting during the day and entrenching at night, and losing many by the casualties of battle, particularly at New Hope Church, and around Atlanta. Having followed Gen'l John Bell Hood into Tennessee, it moved to the assault of the enemy's works at Franklin, with 285 men, and lost over two-thirds of them, mostly killed. Transferred to North Carolina, the Thirty-third took part in the operations there, and a remnant was there surrendered.
Field and staff officers: Cols. Samuel Adams (Butler; wounded, Perryville; KIA, Kennesaw Mountain); Robert F. Crittenden (Coffee; captured, Nashville); Lt. Cols. Daniel H. Horn ( Coffee; resigned); Robert F. Crittenden (promoted); James H. Dunklin (Butler); Majors Robert F. Crittenden (promoted); James H. Dunklin (wounded, Chickamauga; promoted); and Adjutants John Crosby Stallworth (Conecuh; died, Tupelo); A. M. Moore (Greene; KIA, Chickamauga); Willis J. Milner (Butler)
The 34th Alabama Infantry was organized at Loachapoka on 15 April 1862, with companies recruited from Montgomery and the counties of Coosa, Russell, and Tallapoosa. It was sent to Tupelo, MS, and was placed with the 24th and 28th Alabama regiments, and two South Carolina regiments, in Gen'l Arthur M. Manigault's Brigade, Gen'l Jones M. Wither's Division. The regiment moved into Kentucky but was not in action during the campaign. It was with the main Army of Tennessee when it fought at Murfreesboro, and it sustained heavy casualties (11 k, 77 w). The remainder of the winter was spent near Tullahoma, and the regiment then withdrew with the army to the Chattanooga area. At Chickamauga, the 34th again lost heavily, and at Missionary Ridge, a large number were captured. The regiment, numbering 388 men and 281 arms, wintered and recruited for the campaigning of 1864 at Dalton and began the "Hundred Days' Battle" in the spring. From Dalton to Atlanta, the 34th shared fully in the operations of the Army of Tennessee. It lost heavily in the battles of 22 and 28 July, at Atlanta. At Jonesboro, casualties were light. At the Battle of Franklin, the 34th escaped the severest part of the fighting, but at Nashville, the remainder of the unit was nearly decimated. With the wreck of the Army, the regiment passed into the Carolinas where it skirmished at Kinston and again at Bentonville. Ultimately consolidated with the 24th and 28th regiments, about 100 of the original 1,000 members of the regiment were surrendered at High Point, North Carolina, 26 April 1865.
Field officers: Col. Julius C. B. Mitchell (Montgomery, detached). Lt. Cols. James W. Echols (Macon, resigned); John C. Carter (Montgomery, wounded at Murfreesboro). Majors Henry R. McCoy (Tallapoosa, resigned); John N. Slaughter (Coosa, wounded at Atlanta).
The 35th Alabama Infantry Regiment was organized at Lagrange, 12 Marchl 1862, with about 750 men recruited from Franklin, Lauderdale, Lawrence, Limestone, and Madison counties. Ordered to Corinth, it was there brigaded under Gen'l John C. Breckinridge. It followed that officer to Louisiana and took part in the attack on Baton Rouge, losing 4 k and 21 w. It was part of the force with which Gen'l Earl Van Dorn assaulted Corinth; casualties were heavy. Placed under Gen'l James Buford, the regiment was under fire at the first bombardment of Port Hudson. It passed some time in that vicinity, and in May 1863, the regiment was engaged at Baker's Creek with light loss. Escaping the perils of Vicksburg by following Gen'l William W. Loring out of the battle, the 35th was soon after sent to the Army of Tennessee; but in February 1864 went back to Mississippi to confront Union Gen'l William T. Sherman's advance. The regiment was now in the brigade of Gen'l T. B. Scott of Louisiana, consisting of the 27th, 49th, 55th, and 57th Alabama, and 12th Louisiana. Rejoining the Army of Tennessee, the 35th was part of the resolute column that stood in front of Sherman's army during the struggles in north Georgia and Atlanta. During that time, it lost 65 k and w on 22 July at Atlanta, and 27 k and w on the 28th. The regiment moved into Tennessee with Gen'l John Bell Hood and was in the advance in the attack on the outpost at Decatur, where it lost 35 k and w. At the Battle of Franklin, the 35th lost 150 k and w, one half of its effective force. The loss at Nashville was light, and the remnant of the regiment proceeded eastward to renew their struggle in the Carolinas. The 35th, 55 officers and men, was surrendered with the Army of Tennessee.
Field and staff officers: Cols. James W. Robertson (Franklin; resigned); Edward Goodwin (Franklin; died in service); Samuel S. Ives (Lauderdale; wounded, Franklin); Lt. Cols. Edward Goodwin (promoted); Samuel S. Ives (promoted); Alva E. Ashford (Lawrence); Majors William H. Hunt (Franklin; transferred); Samuel S. Ives (promoted); Alva E. Ashford (promoted); and John S. Dickson (Madison; KIA, Franklin)
The 37th Alabama Infantry Regiment was organized at Auburn, in the spring of 1862, under the requisition of President Jefferson Davis for 12,000 more Alabamians. The members were recruited from Barbour, Chambers, Henry, Macon, Pike, Russell, and Tallapoosa counties. Ordered to Columbus, MS, after a short time, the regiment proceeded to Tupelo. There it was placed in Gen'l Henry Little's Division, and in the Brigade of Col. Martin of TN, with three Mississippi regiments. Gen'l Dabney Herndon Maury succeeded Gen'l Little when the latter was killed at Iuka, where the 37th was first engaged, with some loss. The regiment took part in the Battle of Corinth, losing heavily in casualties. The brigade commander fell at Corinth, and the 37th was thrown into a brigade with the 2nd TX, and 42nd AL, Gen'l John C. Moore commanding. The winter was spent in MS -- the regiment retreating from Holly Springs and taking part in the repulse of the invaders at Chickasaw Bayou. Early in 1863, the 37th was sent to the Sunflower River but went back in time to take part in the battles of Port Gibson and Champion Hill, where its losses were severe. The regiment was then assigned to the garrison of Vicksburg and was captured with the fortress. Exchanged soon after, the regiment was in parole camp at Demopolis. Ordered to the Army of Tennessee, it lost heavily at Lookout Mountain and quite a number at Mission Ridge. The winter passed at Dalton, GA, where Gen'l Alpheus Baker of Barbour took charge of the brigade. The regiment was then engaged at Chattanooga (73 casualties our of 407 men present), Resaca, Noonday Creek, Kennesaw, and the battles around Atlanta. In one charge at Atlanta, 22 July, the regimental commander and 40 men were killed outright, out of 300 men present. During the fall and winter, the 37th was on garrison duty at Spanish Fort but moved into NC. It broke the enemy line at Bentonville, and furled its colors a few days later, with 300 of its number present out of the 1100 who took the field originally.
Field officers: Col. James F. Dowdell (Chambers Co., captured at Vicksburg and retired). Lt. Cols. A. A. Greene (Chambers Co., wounded, Iuka, Mission Ridge; KIA, Atlanta); and W. F. Slaton (Macon Co.). Majors John P. W. Amorine (Pike Co., transferred); W. F. Slaton (wounded, Corinth; captured, Lookout Mountain; promoted); and Joel C. Kendrick (Covington Co.)
[The 37th Alabama Infantry Regiment, Consolidated, was organized on 9 April 1865 by combining the original 37th Alabama with the 42nd and 54th Alabama regiments, at Smithfield, NC. The unit(s) surrendered on 26 April 1865 at Durham Station, Orange County, NC. Field officers: Col. John A. Minter and Lt. Col. William D. McNeill.]
The 40th Alabama Infantry was organized in May 1862 at Mobile, with men raised in Choctaw, Colbert, Covington, Mobile Morgan, Perry , Pickens, and Sumter counties. It remained in Mobile until December when it was moved to Vicksburg to take part in the operations on Deer Creek. While there, it was brigaded with the 37th and 42nd Alabama, and 2nd Texas, under Gen'l J. C. Moore. Four companies were there transferred to Gen'l Ector's Brigade, Gen'l Braxton Bragg's Army of Tennessee and fought at Chickamauga. The other companies of the 40th were part of the garrison of Vicksburg, suffered severely, and were there captured. The regiment was reunited near Mission Ridge and took part in that battle and at Lookout Mountain, but with light loss. Having passed the winter at Dalton, GA, where Gen'l A. Baker took command of the brigade, the 40th took part in the campaign from there to Atlanta, with losses especially heavy at New Hope. When the army marched back to Tennessee, in company with the other regiments of Baker's Brigade, the 40th was sent to Mobile and was on garrison duty there for some months. In January 1865, the regiment proceeded with the remainder of the army to North Carolina and shared in the operations, fighting at Bentonville with severe loss. Consolidated with the 19th and 46th, the 40th was shortly after surrendered at Durham Station, NC, 26 April 1865.
Field and staff officers: Cols. Augustus A. Coleman (Sumter; resigned); John H. Higley (Mobile; captured, Vicksburg); Lt. Cols. John H. Higley (promoted); Thomas Stone (Pickens; died in service); Ezekiel S. Gully (Sumter); Majors Thomas Stone (promoted); Ezekiel S. Gully (promoted); Elbert D. Willett (Pickens).; and Adjutant Clarence H. Ellerbee (KIA, Bentonville).
The 42nd Alabama Infantry Regiment was organized at Columbus, MS, in May 1862, composed principally of men who reorganized, in two or three instances, as entire companies after serving a year as the 2nd Alabama Infantry Regiment. Members came primarily from Conecuh, Fayette, Marion, Mobile, Monroe, Pickens, Talladega, and Wilcox counties. The regiment joined Gen'ls Price and Van Dorn at Ripley in September, and was brigaded under Gen'l John C. Moore of Texas. A month later, the 42nd went into the Battle of Corinth with 700 men (losing 98 k and about 250 w or captured). It wintered in Mississiippi, Moore's Brigade being reorganized with the 37th, 40th and 42nd Alabama, and the 2nd Texas regiments. It was part of the garrision of Vicksburg and lost 10 k and about 50 w there, with the remainder captured at the surrender of the fortress. The 42nd was in parole camp at Demopolis, then it joined the Army of Tennessee. It fought with severe losses at Lookout Mountain and Mission Ridge, and it wintered at Dalton, GA. Gen'l Baker of Barbour then took command of the brigade (Clayton's [Stewart's] Division, Polk's Corps). In the spring, the 42nd fought at Resaca with a loss of 59 k and w. It was then continually skirmishing until the battle of New Hope, where its loss was comparatively light as it was at Atlanta the 22nd of July. On the 28th of July, the loss was heavy . A few days later, the regiment was sent to Spanish Fort where it remained on garrison duty during the fall and until January 1865. It then moved into North Carolina, participated in the battle of Bentonville, and surrendered with the army.
Field and staff officers: Cols. John W. Portis (Clarke; wounded, Corinth; resigned); Thomas C. Lanier (Pickens; wounded, New Hope); Lt. Col. Thomas C. Lanier (wounded, Corinth; promoted); Major W. C. Fergus (Mobile; captured, Missionary Ridge); and Adjutants Thomas J. Portis (Dallas; resigned); and Thomas Gaillard (Mobile)
The 45th Alabama Infantry Regiment was organized at Auburn in May 1862. Companies that made up the unit were from the counties of Barbour, Randolph, Lowndes, Macon, and Russell. It was immediately sent to Corinth. At Tupelo it lost many men by disease, but in the autumn it moved into KY, part of Patton Anderson's Brigade. It charged a battery at Perryville and suffered severely in casualties. The regiment came out of KY with the army and was soon after engaged in the battle of Murfreesboro where its casualties were numerous. Placed in the brigade of Gen'l Sterling A. M. Wood of Lauderdale, Cleburne's Division (with the 16th, 26th, 50th, and 33rd AL regiments), the 45th remained on duty with the Army of Tennessee, passing the first half of the year 1863 at Tullahoma. it fought under the eye of Gen'l Pat Cleburne at Chicamauga, and its mutilated ranks told the eloquent story of its services. Gen'l Mark Lowery of Mississippi succeeded to the command of the brigade, and the 45th was present at Mission Ridge and Ringgold Gap with slight loss. The winter was passed at Dalton, and the regiment took a full share in the Dalton-Atlanta campaign, especially at Resaca, and at New Hope, where Cleburne's Division grappled with Union Gen'l John A. Logan's Corps. On the 22nd of July, at Atlanta, "Death" reveled in its ranks, and half the regiment went down on the hard-fought field. Six weeks later it again fought "where Cleburne crossed the line" at Jonesboro, with considerable loss. Then followed the long and disastrous march into TN. The 45th opened the battle at Franklin the evening before by a brilliant fight at Springhill, and the next day was in the bloody and desperate assault of Cleburne's Division on the enemy's works, and was almost annihilated around the corpse of its heroic division commander. Its colors floated before Nashville, and a remnant of the 45th moved into North Carolina. It was there consolidated with other Alabama regiments, and surrendered with Gen'l Joseph E. Johnston's forces.
Statistics: It was organized with 750 men, reported 91 casualties at Murfreesboro, and 117 at Chickamauga, and totaled 366 effectives and 309 arms in December 1863. The regiment lost 27 k, 72 w, and 32 missing at the Battle of Atlanta and was almost annihilated at Franklin. Only a remnant surrendered on 26 April 1865.
Field officers: Cols. Ephraim B. Breedlove, James G. Gilchrist, Willism S. Goodwyn, and Harris D. Lampley; Lt. Col. Robert H. Abercrombie; and Major George C. Freeman.
[This regiment was originally mustered into service as the 31st (Hale's) Alabama Infantry, but its designation was changed in the spring of 1863. It is also called the 52nd Alabama Regiment!] The 49th Alabama Infantry Regiment was organized at Nashville, in January 1862 with men from Blount, Colbert, DeKalb, Jackson, Lauderdale, Lawrence, Limestone, Madison, Marshall, and Morgan counties, and attached to the Kentucky Brigade of Gen'l John C. Breckinridge. It took part in the Battle of Shiloh where it lost 113 k and w. A few weeks later, the unit was reorganized as the 49th Regiment on 8 May 1862 and was sent to Vicksburg, with Breckinridge's Brigade, and was engaged in the defence of the place when it was bombarded in 1862. On 6 Aug., the regiment fought at Baton Rouge with a loss of 45 k and w. Joining the army of Gen'l Earl Van Dorn, the 49th was engaged in the assault on Corinth and suffered very severely there. Consolidated with the 27th Infantry and 6th Battalion from October 1862 through January 1863, the regiment was ordered to Port Hudson to pass the winter. The regiment was brigaded with the 27th and 35th Alabama, and two Mississippi regiments under Gen'l Abraham Buford, who was soon succeeded by Gen'l William Beall. The 49th shared the dangers and hardships of the 42 days siege of Port Hudson, losing 55 men k and w with the reminder captured, 8 July 1863. Exchanged three months later, the 49th was re-organized at Cahaba and attached to the brigade of Gen'l Thomas M. Scott of Louisiana, with the 12th Louisiana, and 27th, 35th, 55th, and 57th Alabama regments. Joining the main army at Dalton, the brigade was assigned to William W. Loring's Division, Alexander P. Stewart's Corps. Having wintered at Dalton, the 49th participated in the Dalton-Atlanta Campaign, doing much arduous service, but losing inconsiderably. Around Atlanta, it was again fully engaged and suffered severely. It moved with Gen'l John Bell Hood into Tennessee and came out of the battles of Franklin and Nashville with a long list of casualties and captured men. Transferred to the Carolinas, the 49th took part in the operations there. Reduced to a skeleton and consolidated with the 27th, 35th, 55th and 57th Regiments, it was surrendered at Smithfield, NC, 9 April 1865.
Field and Staff Officers:Cols. Smith D. Hale (Madison; retired); Jeptha Edwards (DeKalb; captured, Port Hudson); Lt. Cols. M. Gilbreath (Marshall; resigned); William N. Crump (Blount; retired); John D. Weeden (Madison; wounded, Nashville, and captured); Majors B. C. Johnston (Marshall; retired); John D. Weeden (promoted); Thomas A. Street (Marshall; captured, Port Hudson); Adjutants John D. Weeden (promoted); C. E. Merrill (Dallas; wounded, Corinth, Franklin)
[This regiment was designated the 26th Infantry for several months until it was learned that another 26th Infantry was already in Virginia; consequently, the regiment took the number 50, since many other regiments had been organized in the meantime.]
[The 51st is a mounted infantry regiment, and it is listed with Morgan's Cavalry Brigade]
[For this regiment, see the 49th Alabama Infantry Regiment.]
[The 53rd is a mounted infantry regiment and is listed with Alabama cavalry units.]
The 54th Alabama Infantry Regiment was made up of six Alabama companies ("B", "C", "D", "E", "F", and "I") of the First Alabama-Mississippi-Tennessee Regiment of Col. Alpheus Baker, and four Alabama companies ("A", "E", "H", and "K") of the 40th Tennessee Regiment of Col. L. M. Walker. These companies had been captured at Island No. 10, after nearly a year's arduous service above Memphis. Organized at Jackson, MS, in October, 1862, the 54th operated in the vicinity of Vicksburg during the winter. It fought at Ft. Pemberton with light loss and at Baker's Creek with similar results. Having escaped Vicksburg by moving with Gen'l William W. Loring from Baker's Creek, the 54th was soon after at the siege of Jackson. It was then transferred to the army of Gen'l Braxton Bragg. The regiment wintered at Dalton, GA, and was engaged in the campaign from there to Atlanta. The regiment lost severely at Resaca and at Atlanta (22 July). The loss was very heavy at Atlanta (28 July), with more than half the regiment being killed or wounded. The regimental flag was perforated by 40 bullets. Having moved with Gen'l John Bell Hood into middle Tennessee, the 54th shared the privations and disasters of that campaign. Transferred to North Carolina, it fought at Bentonville, its last battle. It was consolidated with the 37th and 42nd Infantry as the 37th Regiment on 9 April 1865. A remnant only were surrendered with the forces of Gen'l Joseph E. Johnston.
Field officers: Cols. Alpheus Baker (Barbour County, captured at Island No. 10; wounded at Baker's Creek; promoted); John A Minter. Lt. Cols. John A. Minter (Coffee County, captured at Island No. 10; promoted); Thaddeus H. Shackelford. Major Thaddeus H. Shackelford (from Mississippi, captured at Island No. 10; promoted).
The 55th Alabama Infantry Regiment was made up of Snodgrass' 16th and Norwood's 6th infantry battalions, the former of six companies, the latter of five. Snodgrass' Battalion was organized at Corinth in the spring of 1862 out of companies that had been in the service a year at that time, in the organizations of other states. They had fought at Shiloh, and the battalion itself had fought at the first siege of Vicksburg and in the battles of Baton Rouge and Corinth. Norwood's Battalion was organized at Clinton, MS, out of the five companies of Alabamians which had fought and been captured at Fort Donelson while part of Quarles "Tennessee" regiment.
Organized at Port Hudson, Louisiana, in February 1863, with 900 veterans from Calhoun, Cherokee, Jackson, Madison, and Marshall counties, the 55th fought at Baker's Creek in Gen'l Abraham Buford's Brigade, Gen'l William W. Loring's Division, losing considerably. It fought at jackson in the subsequent operations in Mississippi. As part of Gen'l Scott's Brigade, the regiment was attached to the Army of Tennessee in the spring of 1864. It was much reduced by the constant fighting on the retreat from Dalton, but it entered the Battle of Peach Tree Creek (20 July 1864) with 22 officer and 256 men, losing 14 officer and 155 men k and w. After some further skirmishing, the 55th participated in the winter campaign in Tennessee, with long lists of casualties at both Franklin and Nashville. Proceeding to North Carolina, the regiment surrendered at Greensboro, much reduced, under Col. John Snodgrass, 26 April 1865.
Field and staff officers: Col. John Snodgrass (Jackson); Lt. Col. John H. Norwood (Jackson; wounded, Peach Tree Creek); Majors Joseph H. Jones (Jackson; KIA, Peach Tree Creek); James B. Dickey (Madison); and Adjutants Hal C. Bradford (detached); J. C. Howell (Cherokee; KIA, Peach Tree Creek)
[The 56th is a mounted infantry regiment and is listed with Alabama cavalry units.]
The 57th Alabama Infantry Regiment was organized at Troy, in Pike County, in March, 1863, as part of the brigade of Gen'l James H. Clanton of Montgomery. It was stationed at Mobile and Pollard until January 1864, when it moved to Demopolis. Brigaded there under Gen'l Abraham Buford (who was soon succeeded by Gen'l Thomas M. Scott) with the 12th Louisiana, 27th, 35th, and 55th Alabama, and another Louisiana regiment, the 57th joined the Army of the Tennessee in time to share fully the hardships of the Dalton-Atlanta campaign. The casualties of the regiment, however, were not severe until the Battle of Peach Tree Creek, when it was cut to pieces. The 57th participated in the movement into Tennessee, and at Franklin and Nashville, its losses were again large. Transferred to North Carolina, the regiment fought at Bentonville with severe loss. It surrendered there.
Field officers: Cols. J. P. W. Amerine (Pike County, superseded; C. J. L. Cunningham (Pike County, wounded at Franklin). Majors C. J. L. Cunningham (promoted); W. R. Arnold (Pike County, killed at Peachtree); J. Horatio Wiley (Pike County)
The 62nd Alabama Infantry Regiment was organized at Mobile in March, 1865, having changed designation from the 1st Regiment of Reserves, and using Lockhart's Battalion as a nucleus (Lockhart's Battalion was organized in Selma, January 1864.) The new regiment was first stationed at Fort Gaines and was in the bombardment of that place, losing several killed and wounded, and the remainder captured. Prisoners were taken to New Orleans and to Ship Island. They were exchanged in Mobile Bay, 4 Jan 1865 and placed in the garrison of Spanish Fort as part of Thomas' Brigade (along with the 63rd Alabama). They then withstood the siege there for six days with some loss until relieved by Holtzclaw's Brigade. The regiment continued to serve throughout the siege and following bombardment of Fort Blakely, losing a number killed and wounded, until it was captured in the final assault. Taken to Ship Island, the men were exchanged in time to be surrendered with the Department of Alabama, Mississippi and East Louisiana, 4 May 1865. The regiment was composed wholly of young men, and they were complimented in special orders by Gen'l St. John Lidell for their conduct at Spanish Fort.
Field officers: Col. Daniel Huger (Mobile); Lt. Cols. James L. Davidson (Bibb, until reorganized); and Brunot Yniestre (captured at Blakely); and Majors Brunot Yniestre (Mobile, promoted); J. W. Pitts (Shelby, captured at Blakely).
The 63rd Alabama Infantry Regiment was organized at Fort Blakely in July 1864 with men who were nearly all conscripted from various parts of the state (excepting men in Co.'s "A" and "B" and the officers, who were mostly veterans) and who had been designated the 2nd Regiment of Reserves. The regiment remained in the defences of Mobile until ordered to Spanish Fort, three days before it was invested in March 1865. It was, with the 62nd Alabama, a part of Gen'l Thomas' brigade, and it lost several killed and wounded during the first six days' operations at Spanish Fort. Relieved and sent to Fort Blakely, the 63rd arrived there in time to endure the siege. After some loss, the regiment was captured with the fortress, 9 April 1865, about 300 in number. They were exchanged just prior to the surrender of the Department of Alabama, Mississippi and East Louisiana, 4 May 1865.
Field officers: Cols. Oland S. Rice (until reorganized); and Junius A. Law (Macon, captured at Blakeley); Lt. Cols. Junius A. Law (promoted); and John H. Echols (Macon, captured at Blakely); Majors John H. Echols (promoted); and I. W. Suttle (Coosa, captured at Spanish Fort).
The 65th Alabama Infantry Regiment resulted from the consolidation of the 4th Alabama Battalion (reserves), seven companies, which organized in July 1864 at Mobile, with William M. Stone of Sumter as lieutenant colonel, and E. M. Underhill of Mobile as major, and the 3rd Alabama Battalion (reserves). The battalion was in garrison at MobiIe, and in November was organized as the 65th regiment. In December, the regiment was sent to east Mississippi to repel raiders where it remained for several weeks. Ordered from Mobile to North Carolina, the regiment was stopped at Montgomery and ordered to report to Gen'l Abraham Buford. It retired before Union Gen'l James H. Wilson's column to Girard, and participated in the battle there, losing several k and w, and the remainder mostly captured, 16 April 1865.
Field and Staff Officers: Cols. E. M. Underhill (Mobile); Lt. Col. E. Toomer (Mobile); Majors S. B. Waring (Mobile); and Adjutants C. F. Westfeldt (Mobile; resigned); C. H. Minge (Mobile)
Comments, questions, and/or suggestions to: Ken Jones