On the night of August 13, 1906, between ten and twenty men rampaged through the streets of Brownsville, Texas, shooting indiscriminately into windows and buildings and killing a bartender and a police horse, wounding the policeman on the horse and a newspaper editor. Some evidence, including types of shells, location of raid, some alleged eyewitness accounts,  linked the mayhem with some members of three companies of African-American infantry that had faced extreme prejudice and discrimination since arriving in Texas a few weeks earlier.
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Despite a great deal of contradictory evidence, the townspeople of Brownsville immediately assumed that the black soldiers were responsible, and they quickly telegraphed President Roosevelt looking for redress.  Roosevelt agreed with Brownsville's white citizens who argued that the government must discharge all members of these once-respected companies immediately, with no possibility of reenlistment, because the men who might possibly know something about the raid were not helping with the investigation.  On November 16, 1906, Secretary of War William H. Taft, followed President Roosevelt's instructions and dishonorably discharged all 167 members of these three companies.

    Roosevelt's actions outraged African-American leaders across the country. Not only did Roosevelt lose almost all of his credibility among African Americans, disagreements within the black community about how to voice this displeasure deepened already present fissures. On one side, Booker T. Washington's camp was reluctant to criticize Roosevelt publicly and remained loyal to the Republican Party; on the other side, leaders of the Niagara Movement were much more outspoken. 

    The Brownsville controversy caused many African Americans to question their loyalty to Roosevelt personally and to the Republican generally. The distrust it generated was still prevalent in the 1912 election.


Continue to see the Official Progressive Party views, to see how the Democrats, Republicans, and Socialists dealt with race in 1912, or to return to the Race in the Election page.