18th Century

The Enlightenment period culminated in the French and American revolutions.  After the American Revolution, Britain lost most of its North American colonies, but became a major power worldwide due to the defeat of France in the Americas. The Industrial Revolution began in Britain in the 1770s. The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth was no longer an independent state, as it collapsed as a result of numerous invasions. The Russian Empire, Archduchy of Austria and Kingdom of Prussia divided the Commonweath territories among them. The Ottoman Empire declined. Science and philosophy became more important. 

(Image: 18th Century Cannon Emplacement, Parson's Lodge Battery, Gibraltar by Moshi Anahory on Flickr.com.) (CC by-sa 2.0)