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All debts contracted and engagements entered into, before the

adoption of this Constitution, shall be as valid against the United

States under this Constitution as under the confederation.

This Constitution, and the laws of the United States which shall

be made in pursuance thereof, and all treaties made, or which shall

be made, under the authority of the United States, shall be the

supreme law of the land; and the judges in every State shall be

bound thereby, anything in the constitution or laws of any State to

the contrary notwithstanding.

The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the

members of the several State legislatures, and all executive and

judicial officers both of the United States and of the several States,

shall be bound by oath or affirmation to support this Constitution;

but no religious test shall ever be required as a qualification to any

office or public trust under the United States.


The ratification of the conventions of nine States shall be sufficient for the establishment of this Constitution between the States

so ratifying the same.

Done in convention by the unanimous consent of the States

present, the seventeenth day of September, in the year of

our Lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty-seven, and

of the independence of the United States of America the

twelfth. In witness whereof, we have hereunto subscribed

our names.

George Washington, President, and Deputy from Virginia.

New Hampshire-John Langdon, Nicholas Gilman.

Massachusetts-Nathaniel Gorham, Rufus King.

Connecticut-William Samuel Johnson, Roger Sherman.

New York-Alexander Hamilton.

New Jersey-William Livingston, David Brearly, William Patterson, Jonathan Dayton.

Pennsylvania-Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Mifflin, Robert Morris, '

George Clymer, Thomas Fitzsimons, Jared Ingersoll, James

Wilson, Gouverneur Morris.

Delaware-George Read, Gunning Bedford, Jr., John Dickinson,

Richard Bassett, Jacob Broom.