Page 4124


Section VIII.-The Congress shall have power to lay and collect

taxes, duties, imposts, and excises, to pay the debts and provide for

the common defense and general welfare of the United States; but

all duties, imposts, and excises shall be uniform throughout the

United States;

To borrow money on the credit of the United States;

To regulate commerce with foreign nations and among the several

States, and with the Indian tribes;

To establish a uniform rule of naturalization, and uniform laws

on the subject of bankruptcies throughout the United States;

To coin money, regulate the value thereof, and of foreign coin,

and fix the standard of weights and measures;

To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the securities and

current coin of the United States;

To establish post-offices and post-roads;

To promote the progress of science and useful arts by securing

for limited times to authors and inventors the exclusive right to

their respective writings and discoveries;

To constitute tribunals inferior to the Supreme Court;

To define and punish piracies and felonies committed on the high

seas and offenses against the law of nations;

To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, and make

rules concerning captures on land and water;

To raise and support armies, but no appropriation of money to

that use shall be for a longer term than two years;

To provide and maintain a navy;

To make rules for the government and regulation of the land and

naval forces;

To provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws of the

Union, suppress insurrections, and repel invasions;

To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining the militia,

and for governing such part of them as may be employed in the

service of the United States, reserving to the States respectively the

appointment of the officers, and the authority of training the militia

according to the discipline prescribed by Congress;

To exercise exclusive legislation in all cases whatsoever over such

district (not exceeding ten miles square) as may, by session of particular States and the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the

Government of the United States, and to exercise like authority over