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contained. And we do further solemnly plight and engage the

faith of our respective constituents that they shall abide by the

determinations of the United States in Congress assembled, in all

questions which by the said Confederation are submitted to them;

and that the articles thereof shall be inviolably observed by the

States we respectively represent, and that the union shall be perpetual. In witness whereof, we have hereunto set our hands in


Done at Philadelphia, in the State of Pennsylvania, the

9th day of July, in the year of our Lord 1778, and in the

third year of the Independence of America.

New Hampshire.-Josiah Bartlett, John Wentworth, Jr.

Massachusetts Bay.-John Hancock, Samuel Adams, Elbridge

Gerry, Francis Dana, James Lovel, Samuel Holton.

Rhode Island, etc.-William Ellery, Henry Marchant, John


Connecticut.-Roger Sherman, Samuel Huntington, Oliver Wolcott, Titus Hosmer, Andrew Adams.

New York.-James Duane, Francis Lewis, William Duer, Gouverneur Morris.

New Jersey.-John Witherspoon, Nath. Scudder.

Pennsylvania.-Robert Morris, Daniel Roberdeau, Jona Bayard

Smith, William Clingan, Joseph Reed.

Delaware.-Thomas M'Kean, John Dickinson, Nicholas Van


Maryland.-John Hanson, Daniel Carroll.

Virginia.-Richard Henry Lee, John Banister, Thomas Adams,

John Harvie, Francis Lightfoot Lee.

North Carolina.-John Penn, Cons. Harnett, John Williams.

South Carolina.-Henry Laurens, Wm. Henry Drayton, John

Matthews, Richard Hutson, Thomas Heyward, Jr.

Georgia.-John Walton, Edward Telfair, Edward Langworthy.

The government formed under the foregoing Articles of Confederation, which

went into effect on March 1, 1781, was without an executive and judiciary, consisting simply of a congress of one house in which each State had one vote. As

it had no power to enforce its laws upon the States, it soon fell into contempt,

and on March 4, 1789, expired by limitation under the provisions of the present