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He has kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Armies without the Consent of our legislature.

He has affected to render the Military independent of and superior

to the Civil Power.

He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving

his Assent to their Acts of pretended Legislation:

For quartering large bodies of armed troops among us:

For protecting them, by a mock Trial, from Punishment for any

Murders which they should commit on the Inhabitants of these


For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world:

For imposing taxes on us without our Consent:

For depriving us, in many cases, of the benefits of Trial by


For transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pretended


For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighboring

Province, establishing therein an Arbitrary government, and enlarging its Boundaries so as to render it at once an example and

fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule into these


For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws,

and altering fundamentally the Forms of our Government:

For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves

invested with Power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.

He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his

Protection and waging War against us.

He has plundered our seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns,

and destroyed the lives of our people.

He is at this time transporting large armies of foreign mercenaries

to complete the works of death, desolation and tyranny, already

begun with circumstances of Cruelty and perfidy scarcely paralleled

in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a

civilized nation.