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alter their former Systems of Government. The history of the

present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and

usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an

absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let Facts be

submitted to a candid world.

He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and

necessary for the public good.

He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and

pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation till his

Assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly

neglected to attend to them.

He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of

large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the

right of Representation in the Legislature, a right inestimable to

them and formidable to tyrants only.

He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the depository of their Public Records,

for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his


He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing

with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people.

He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause

others to be elected; whereby the Legislative Powers, incapable of

Annihilation, have returned to the People at large for their exercise;

the State remaining in the meantime exposed to all the dangers of

invasion from without, and convulsions within.

He has endeavoured to prevent the population of these States;

for that purpose obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage their migration hither,

and raising the conditions of new Appropriations of Lands.

He has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing his

Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary Powers.

He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the tenure

of their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries.

He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms

of Officers to harass our People, and eat out their substance.