Page 4080

4080 THE TWENTIETH CENTURY-THE GREAT WAR.

States which formerly governed them, and

which are inhabited by peoples not yet able

to stand by themselves under the strenuous

conditions of the modern world, there should

be applied the principle that the well-being

and development of such peoples form a

sacred trust of civilization, and that securities for the performance of this trust

should be embodied in this covenant.

The best method of giving practicable

effect to this principle is that the tutelage

of such peoples be intrusted to advanced

nations who, by reason of their resources,

their experience, or their geographical position, can best undertake this responsibility,

and who are willing to accept it, and that

this tutelage should be exercised by them as

mandataries on behalf of the League.

The character of the mandate must

differ according to the stage of development

of the people, the geographical situation of

the territory, its economic conditions and

other similar circumstances. Certain communities formerly belonging to the Turkish

Empire have reached a stage of development where their existence as independent

nations can be provisionally recognized, subject to the rendering of administrative advice and assistance by a mandatory

until such time as they are able to

stand alone. The wishes of these

communities must be a principal consideration in the selection of the

mandatory.

Other peoples, especially those of

Central Africa, are at such a stage

that the mandatory must be responsible for the administration of the

territory under conditions which will

guarantee freedom of conscience or

religion subject only to the maintenance of public order and morals, the

prohibition of abuses such as the

slave trade, the arms traffic, and the

liquor traffic, and the prevention of

the establishment of fortifications or

military and naval bases and of military training of the natives for other

than police purposes, and the defense

of territory, and will also secure equal

opportunities for the trade and commerce of other members of the League.

There are territories, such as Southwest Africa and certain of the South

Pacific Islands which, owing to the

sparseness of their population or their

small size or their remoteness from

the centers of civilization or their geographical contiguity to the territory

of the mandatory and other circumstances can be best administered under the laws of the mandatory as integral

portions of its territory, subject to the

safeguards above mentioned in the interests

of the indigenous population. In every

case of mandate, the mandatory shall render

to the Council an annual report in reference

to the territory committed to its charge.

The degree of authority, control, or administration to be exercised by the mandatory, if not previously agreed upon by