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4066O UNIVERSAL HISTORY-THE MODERN WORLD.

Nations, while in others it was pointed to as

a striking example of the League's impotence. Beyond question the influence of

Great Britain and other powers did much

to avert an armed conflict. The sudden

up flaring of the quarrel, which was almost

coincident with a new controversy between

Italy and Jugoslavia over Fiume, brought

home to the world how near to the abyss of

war a part of Europe continued to dwell.

After months of delay a peace treaty of

the Allied powers and Turkey was signed

on July 23, 1923, at Lausanne, Switzerland.

Jugoslavia refused to sign because of dissatisfaction over the terms for the apportionment of the Turkish debt, while Russia

accepted the convention regarding the

Straits at a later date.

Upon the whole, the treaty was extremely favorable to Turkey, and represented a

great recession from the terms of the

armistice at the end of the Great War and

from the later treaty of Sevres of August

10, 1920. Constantinople was restored

definitely to Turkey and all foreign troops

were to be withdrawn from it; the Patriarch

of the Greek Orthodox Church was to be

permitted to remain in Constantinople,

but no provision for the safety of the Armenians was incorporated; the loss of such

states as Syria, Mesopotamia, and Palestine

was recognized, but Turkey regained western

Asia Minor, including Smyrna and Thrace;

and Turkey got rid of the judicial' capitulations under which cases involving foreigners

in Turkey were tried in special courts presided over by foreign judges. The question

of the boundary between Turkey and the

new state of Iraq was to be left to special

negotiations between Turkey and Great

Britain. The coasts along the Bosporus

and the Dardanelles were demilitarized,

and elaborate regulations were adopted regarding the use of these Straits in time of

peace and in time of war. In time of peace

there was to be complete freedom of navigation for all merchant vessels free from

any charge or tax whatsoever.

Turkey's success in obtaining so liberal

a treaty was due to the determination of her

people to regain their sovereignty at any

cost and to the unwillingness of such powers

as Great Britain to engage in another war.

At the end of the Great War it was confidently believed that the Turks would be

finally expelled from Europe and that proper

safeguards would be provided for subject

peoples like the Armenians. But the

Allied powers worked at cross purposes, the

Greeks were beaten, and the Turks continued

to hold Constantinople and Armenia. The

outcome was extremely humiliating to some

of the Occidental powers and was significant

of the fact that some of these powers,

Great Britain at least, would "put up with

many grievous things for the sake of peace."

An American historian, in commenting on

the outcome, said:

"About 1,500,000 Greeks have been

reported as expelled from Asia and Thrace

into the Greek kingdom in exchange for

300,000 Turks. Between one and two

millions of Armenians have disappeared.

No competent statistics, of course, exist for

the number of kidnapped Greek and

Armenian women who will end their days in

what can only be described as 'slave concubinage.' There is every reason for

believing that their multitude is great.

This is a tender point with the Turks, of

course, and subject to vigorous denials but where are these women? In 1919-22

the Western powers' failed to award the

Ottomans that firm 'justice' which the

Oriental recognizes and submits to in good

faith: they merely threatened them with a

crude exploitation. The Ottomans therefore solved the problem in their accustomed

way. Using the indignant words of old

Tacitus, once again the Turks 'have made

a solitude and called it peace.' "

Students of Balkan affairs were fearful

that the treaty would not bring permanent

peace to "the powder magazine of Europe."

Jugoslavia, the expanded Servia, in its

population of 11,600,000, includes many

discontented Germans, Magyars, Roumanians, Albanians, and Croats, while she is

viewed with jealousy by Italy and with

hatred by Bulgaria. With Roumania Servian relations had recently been improved

by the marriage of young King Alexander

with the Princess Marie, daughter of

the Roumanian King. Bulgaria, defeated