4066O UNIVERSAL HISTORY-THE MODERN WORLD.
Nations, while in others it was pointed to as
a striking example of the League's impotence. Beyond question the influence of
Great Britain and other powers did much
to avert an armed conflict. The sudden
up flaring of the quarrel, which was almost
coincident with a new controversy between
Italy and Jugoslavia over Fiume, brought
home to the world how near to the abyss of
war a part of Europe continued to dwell.
After months of delay a peace treaty of
the Allied powers and Turkey was signed
on July 23, 1923, at Lausanne, Switzerland.
Jugoslavia refused to sign because of dissatisfaction over the terms for the apportionment of the Turkish debt, while Russia
accepted the convention regarding the
Straits at a later date.
Upon the whole, the treaty was extremely favorable to Turkey, and represented a
great recession from the terms of the
armistice at the end of the Great War and
from the later treaty of Sevres of August
10, 1920. Constantinople was restored
definitely to Turkey and all foreign troops
were to be withdrawn from it; the Patriarch
of the Greek Orthodox Church was to be
permitted to remain in Constantinople,
but no provision for the safety of the Armenians was incorporated; the loss of such
states as Syria, Mesopotamia, and Palestine
was recognized, but Turkey regained western
Asia Minor, including Smyrna and Thrace;
and Turkey got rid of the judicial' capitulations under which cases involving foreigners
in Turkey were tried in special courts presided over by foreign judges. The question
of the boundary between Turkey and the
new state of Iraq was to be left to special
negotiations between Turkey and Great
Britain. The coasts along the Bosporus
and the Dardanelles were demilitarized,
and elaborate regulations were adopted regarding the use of these Straits in time of
peace and in time of war. In time of peace
there was to be complete freedom of navigation for all merchant vessels free from
any charge or tax whatsoever.
Turkey's success in obtaining so liberal
a treaty was due to the determination of her
people to regain their sovereignty at any
cost and to the unwillingness of such powers
as Great Britain to engage in another war.
At the end of the Great War it was confidently believed that the Turks would be
finally expelled from Europe and that proper
safeguards would be provided for subject
peoples like the Armenians. But the
Allied powers worked at cross purposes, the
Greeks were beaten, and the Turks continued
to hold Constantinople and Armenia. The
outcome was extremely humiliating to some
of the Occidental powers and was significant
of the fact that some of these powers,
Great Britain at least, would "put up with
many grievous things for the sake of peace."
An American historian, in commenting on
the outcome, said:
"About 1,500,000 Greeks have been
reported as expelled from Asia and Thrace
into the Greek kingdom in exchange for
300,000 Turks. Between one and two
millions of Armenians have disappeared.
No competent statistics, of course, exist for
the number of kidnapped Greek and
Armenian women who will end their days in
what can only be described as 'slave concubinage.' There is every reason for
believing that their multitude is great.
This is a tender point with the Turks, of
course, and subject to vigorous denials but where are these women? In 1919-22
the Western powers' failed to award the
Ottomans that firm 'justice' which the
Oriental recognizes and submits to in good
faith: they merely threatened them with a
crude exploitation. The Ottomans therefore solved the problem in their accustomed
way. Using the indignant words of old
Tacitus, once again the Turks 'have made
a solitude and called it peace.' "
Students of Balkan affairs were fearful
that the treaty would not bring permanent
peace to "the powder magazine of Europe."
Jugoslavia, the expanded Servia, in its
population of 11,600,000, includes many
discontented Germans, Magyars, Roumanians, Albanians, and Croats, while she is
viewed with jealousy by Italy and with
hatred by Bulgaria. With Roumania Servian relations had recently been improved
by the marriage of young King Alexander
with the Princess Marie, daughter of
the Roumanian King. Bulgaria, defeated