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be realized. German patriots in the Revolution of 1848 desired two great things:

national unity and popular government.

They failed to achieve either, largely because

of the opposition of Prussia; but in 1871,

largely through the efforts of Bismarck,

national unity was attained. By the

revolution of 1918 Germans had overthrown the Hohenzollerns and other royal

families and at last achieved popular rule

also. It was certain that many Germans

would bitterly resist any attempt to deprive them of these blessings. In some

places they resisted the Separatists, and

bloody battles took place. At Aix la

Chapelle they retook the city, killing

several of the Separatists in battle and

beating others to death after they had been

taken prisoners. In the eyes of loyal

Germans the Separatists were traitors, who

were playing the game of the French.

In September, 1923, a "bloodless" revolution occurred in Spain. The uprising was

planned and executed by army officers and

Spanish Facisti leaders and was directed

at radical pacifism and revolutionism. The

immediate cause was discontent over the

incompetent management of affairs in Morocco. This discontent was not confined to

the army but was widespread among other

classes, while there was a strong sentiment

that something must be done to crush

radical movements, which had been manifested in conspiracies and labor uprisings

and by a Separatist movement in Catalonia.

On September 12, leading officers of

important garrisons sent an ultimatum to

the Cabinet demanding the immediate

beginning of an offensive in Morocco and

threatening a coup d'etat in case of noncompliance. The chief leader in the movement was Fernando Primo Rivera, Captain

General of Barcelona. On the 13th, he took

possession of Barcelona for the revolutionists, and the revolt spread rapidly over

Spain. The existing Alhucemas Cabinet

requested General Rivera to abandon the

revolt for patriotic reasons, and when he

declined to do so some of the Cabinet

members resigned. General Rivera issued

a manifesto in which he declared that the

revolt was directed not against the throne

but was designed to relieve the country of

an incompetent Ministry. King Alfonso

was absent from the capital when the uprising began, but on his return, on September 14, Premier Alhucemas begged him to

provide methods for punishing the revolting

army chiefs. When he refused, Alhucemas

handed in his resignation and that of his

Ministers. The King thereupon invited

General Rivera to take charge of the

Government. Rivera proceeded to Madrid

and took charge of a military directorate

composed of army leaders. Although martial law was proclaimed throughout Spain,

the people remained calm and there was no


Late in August, 1923, a sudden crisis in

relations between Italy and Greece was

precipitated by the brutal murder near

Janina of General Tellini, the Italian President of the International Commission for

the Delimitation of the Graeco-Albanian

frontier, and the four Italian members of

his suite. There were no survivors of the

tragedy, and uncertainty existed as to the

responsibility for the foul deed. The

revolutionary Government at Athens hastened to express its regrets to the Italian

Government and stated that steps were

being taken for the apprehension of the

murderers, who in the Greek view were

more probably Albanians than Greeks.

But the Italian Government took the view

that not only individual Greeks but Greek

officials acting upon orders from Athens

were responsible for the murders and

twenty-four hours after receiving the Greek

note Italy dispatched an ultimatum which

in the severity of its terms went beyond the

historic note sent by Austria-Hungary in

June, 1914, to Serbia.

By the ultimatum Greece was given

twenty-four hours in which to agree to the

demand that the Janina murderers must be

punished by death, that Greece must pay

an indemnity of 50,000,000 lire (about

$2,000,000) in five days, that Greek ships

must salute the Italian colors, that the

highest Greek military authorities must

convey regrets to Rome, that Italy's military attache must be permitted to help

investigate the crime, and that the Greek