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4066J THE TWENTIETH CENTURY-RECONSTRUCTION PERIOD.

his laying down his arms, no one could be

sure that he might not at any time head

some new revolt.

At the time of Villa's death American

commissioners sent out by President Harding were negotiating with the Obregon

Government over the differences between

Mexico and the United States. A satisfactory agreement upon all points was signed

on August 15, and on August 16 the Mexican

Government was formally recognized by the

United States. This resumption of diplomatic relations, broken more than ten years

before, was a great triumph for the Obregon

Government.

General Obregon had succeeded so well

in restoring peace and order in Mexico that

it was probaably unfortunate that the constitution debarred him from succeeding

himself. In the autumn of 1923 a heated

presidential campaign began, and some

observers feared that it would result in new

revolutionary disorders.

On May 20, 1923, Andrew Bonar Law,

who had been British Prime Minister since

the previous October, resigned on account

of ill-health. The choice of his successor

lay between Stanley Baldwin, Chancellor

of the Exchequer, and the Marquis of Curzon, the Foreign Secretary. It was deemed

better to have a Premier who was a member

of the House of Commons, and in consequence Baldwin was chosen. His Cabinet

included Lord Robert Cecil as Lord Privy

Seal, the Marquis of Curzon as Foreign

Secretary, the Duke of Devonshire as

Colonial Secretary, the Earl of Derby as

War Secretary, and Neville Chamberlain

as Chancellor of the Exchequer.

About the same time, affairs in Ireland

took a more peaceful turn. Eamon de

Valera, the Republican leader, issued a

statement asking his followers to cease

hostilities. Peace presently reigned once

more in the Free State, and citizens went

about from place to place without fear of

injury, but armed Government patrols

continued to police the highways in order

to guard against any new outbreaks.

The coming election, the date of which

was fixed for August 27, became the chief

topic of popular interest. On August 9,

the Dail Eirann was dissolved, and electioneering for the new Parliament became

general. In his closing speech before the

Dail President Cosgrave pointed with satisfaction to the passage of what he regarded

as forty-three important acts. Some of the

prisoners held for political offenses were

released, among them being Count Plunkett,

Republican Deputy for Roscommon and

one of the most bitter opponents of the

Anglo-lrish treaty.

De Valera, the Republican leader, offered

himself as a candidate for Clare on a platform of "untrammeled independence." "So

far as we are concerned," he said, "the war

is finished. We intend to devote ourselves

to social reform and education and to

developing the economic and material

strength of the nation." In an appeal to

Irish-Americans for funds to be used in the

campaign he stated that in case of a Republican victory Ireland would be governed on

Sinn Fein lines and that in case of a Republican defeat they would refuse to take the

oath of allegiance to the King and would

act as a separate body. His appeal did not

meet with any considerable response in

America, nor did his campaign in Ireland

make much headway. The great majority

of the Irish people were tired of internal

strife stirred up by visionary hotheads,

and were anxious to settle down to peace

and quiet once more. On August 14, while

De Valera was addressing an open meeting

at Ennis, County Clare, he was arrested by

Free State troops, who came upon the

scene in an armored car, and the rebel leader

was taken to Limerick and thence to Dublin. In anticipation of such an event De

Valera had appointed Patrick Rutledge

"Deputy and Acting President." Rutledge

issued a protest against the violation of free

speech and free elections.

The result of the election proved to be a

victory for the Free State Government.

The Government won 63 seats, the Republicans 44, the Independents 16, the Laborites 15, and the Farmers 15. A number

of the Republican leaders were, however,

returned. Among them were De Valera,

Rutledge, the Countess Markievicz, and

Mary MacSwiney, sister of Terence