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4066B UNIVERSAL HISTORY-THE MODERN WORLD.

developed by an organization called the

Non-Partisan League, which gained political

control in North Dakota and exercised much

influence in other northwestern states. In

the election of 1922 the Farmer-Labor

organization won a great victory in Minnesota by electing its candidate, Henry

Shipstead, to the Federal Senate and defeating Senator Kellogg, who was the

Republican nominee. Some months later

the venerable Knute Nelson of the same

state died, and a special election was held

to choose his successor. The Republican

nominee was Governor Preus. The Farmer Labor party put forward Magnus Johnson,

a farmer who held the opinions of Senator

LaFollette and others of the so-called radical

group in Congress. The contest attracted

widespread attention, being regarded not

only as a test of the strength of the new

party but also of the popularity of the

Harding Administration. Johnson won a

sweeping victory.

On June 20, 1923, President Harding

and a party of sixty-five, not including a

dozen secret service men, set out from

Washington on a trip to the Pacific coast

and Alaska. It was expected that the

journey would be one of more than 15,000

miles, one of the longest ever taken by a

President. It would also be the first ever

made to Alaska by a President.

On the way westward the President

made a number of speeches of importance.

At St. Louis he made a plea in behalf of his

plan of American participation in the

League of Nation's Permanent Court of

Justice, but laid down some new fundamentals of American membership in the

court. Though admitting that it would be

unreasonable to ask the league to agree to

the creation of a new court, he said that the

court ought to be divorced from the league,

or at least a partial separation made so

that the court would be free from any

league influence or control. At Kansas

City he spoke on the problem of railway

transportation. He declared against Government ownership and advocated consolidating the roads into a few great systems, "the whole to be under rigorous

Government supervision, and the larger

systems to be so constituted that the weaker

and unprofitable lines would be able to

lean upon the financial strength of the more

profitable lines until the growth of the

country makes them all earn a just return

on capital invested."

At Hutchinson, Kansas, in the heart of

the wheat belt, he went into the harvest

field and aided in harvesting operations.

To an audience composed largely of farmers

he spoke of the farmers' problems but told

his audience that the ills of which they were

complaining were not exclusively their own.

He summarized the steps taken by his

Administration to aid farmers as follows:

"By a prompt policy of placing necessary

credits at the disposal of those engaged in

finding foreign markets for our foodstuff's;

by arresting and reversing the drastic

inflation which had the seeming effect under

the former Administration of being aimed

especially at the destruction of agriculture's

prosperity; by recalling the War Finance

Corporation from its state of suspended

animation, giving it a credit of $1,000,000,000 in Government bonds, and recommissioning it to afford relief to American

farmers."

At Denver he spoke in favor of rigid

enforcement of the Eighteenth Amendment

and declared that prohibition had come to

stay. At Cheyenne he went on record as

opposing the nationalization of coal mines.

In other addresses along the way he advocated a cooperative organization of consumers to eliminate part of the costs of

distribution, said that in the event of any

new war it would be necessary to conscript

both capital and labor, and declared against

letting down the bars that had been raised

to restrict immigration. Though conceding

that there might be need for greater man

power in industrial activities, he said that

he preferred "waiting jobs to idle men" and

would "choose quality rather than quantity

in future immigration."

On July 4, the presidential party reached

Portland, Oregon, and next day embarked

on the transport Henderson for Alaska.

Much of the route followed was through the

famous "Inside Passage," one of the most

wonderful scenic waterways in the whole