3813 THE TWENTIETH CENTURY-THE GREAT WAR.
doctor's degree, and became a professor in
his Alma Mater in 1882. In 1888, he
visited the United States and while here
married an American woman. In 1891, he
entered political life and rapidly became a
leader of his people, championing their cause
against the dominant Germans and Magyars.
He became a marked man, and when the
Great War broke out, he was forced to flee
the country to save his life.
During the war the Czechoslovaks found
themselves in a most unhappy position.
Their young men were forced into the Austro-Hungarian army and were ordered to fight
the Russians and the Servians, like themselves Slavs. Many of them refused, and
it is estimated that probably 200,000 deserted to the enemy. Some of those who were
left at home refused to buy war bonds, gave
information to the enemy, and used all sorts
of obstructive methods to cripple the
Austrian war efforts. Ruthless forms of
terrorism were used by the Government to
control them, and thousands were executed.
Under the inspiration of Masaryk and
others the Czechoslovak emigrants to other
countries formed organizations for the purpose of carrying on the fight for freedom.
In the United States the Bohemian National
Alliance and the Slovak League raised large
sums of money to support the effort. With
money thus raised, Masaryk equipped volunteer armies of Czechoslovaks on both the
French and Russian Fronts.
Dr. Masaryk became the President of the
Czechoslovak National Council. His activities and those of his fellow countrymen
proved so valuable to the Allies that in 1918
the United States and other Allied powers
formally recognized the independence of the
Czechoslovak people. At this time there
was not afoot of soil of their country but
what was under the domination of their
enemies, but Czechoslovak troops were
fighting in Siberia, on the Balkan Front, and
in France. The Czechoslovaks deserved
well of the Allies and of humanity, and it
became a settled policy of the Allies not to