3810 UNIVERSAL HISTORY-THE MODERN WORLD.
offensive, capturing many prisoners and
much booty. Finally, on February 23,
Foreign Secretary Kuhlmann announced
that the Central Powers were ready to make
a new offer of peace imposing more drastic
terms, and that this offer must be accepted
within 48 hours. Lenine announced that
the situation was hopeless, and the chief
executive committee of the Soviets accepted
the German terms by a considerable majority. By this time, the German columns
were beginning to meet with some resistance.
Early in March, a treaty of peace was signed.
On the 3d, the Germans announced that
their invasion would cease and claimed to
have captured over 60,000 prisoners, 2,400
cannon, 5,,000 machine guns, 800 locomotives, enormous quantities of munitions, and
The new treaty dispossessed Russia of
nearly one-fourth of her whole European
area and of about one-third of her population-of about 455,000 square miles and
about 56,000,000 people. Finland, Poland,
Ukrainia, Lithuania, Esthonia, Livonia,
Courland, and a portion of Trans-Caucasia
were given up. This last territory lies to the
southeast of the Black Sea and was surrendered to Turkey.
Finland, like Ukrainia, had already declared her independence of Russia, but
considerable fighting took place between the
Bolshevist Red Guards and the Finland
Independents. The Germans took the
side of the Finns. They landed troops
on Aland Island and then on the mainland, and, early in March, it was
announced that a peace treaty had been
signed between Finland and Germany.
By this treaty Germany agreed to exert
herself to secure the recognition, by all
the powers, of Finland's independence.
Finland became a state dependent
upon Germany, and a Teutonic prince,
Prince Frederick Charles of Hesse,
brother-in-law of Kaiser Wilhelm, was
made king of the country.
The peace treaty between the Central
Powers and the Bolsheviki further
stipulated that Russia would without
delay complete the demobilization of
her army and transfer her warships to
Prussian ports and leave them there
until a general peace. The Bolsheviki
also agreed to conclude a peace with
Ukrainia. Prisoners of war on both
sides were to be sent home, but, in
reality, Russian prisoners in Germany
were held indefinitely and compelled
to work for their captors. The Bolsheviki were required to withdraw
their troops from the regions they had
given up. Russia undertook to refrain
from all interference in the internal affairs of
these territories and to let Germany and
Austria determine their future fate in agreement with their populations.
Subsequently the Germans exacted additional terms from Russia, including heavy
financial indemnities. In fact, the Germans
treated Russia much as if she were a vassal province, and it was clear to the world
that they intended to make use of Russian
resources against the Entente. The