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offensive, capturing many prisoners and

much booty. Finally, on February 23,

Foreign Secretary Kuhlmann announced

that the Central Powers were ready to make

a new offer of peace imposing more drastic

terms, and that this offer must be accepted

within 48 hours. Lenine announced that

the situation was hopeless, and the chief

executive committee of the Soviets accepted

the German terms by a considerable majority. By this time, the German columns

were beginning to meet with some resistance.

Early in March, a treaty of peace was signed.

On the 3d, the Germans announced that

their invasion would cease and claimed to

have captured over 60,000 prisoners, 2,400

cannon, 5,,000 machine guns, 800 locomotives, enormous quantities of munitions, and

other booty.

The new treaty dispossessed Russia of

nearly one-fourth of her whole European

area and of about one-third of her population-of about 455,000 square miles and

about 56,000,000 people. Finland, Poland,

Ukrainia, Lithuania, Esthonia, Livonia,

Courland, and a portion of Trans-Caucasia

were given up. This last territory lies to the

southeast of the Black Sea and was surrendered to Turkey.

Finland, like Ukrainia, had already declared her independence of Russia, but

considerable fighting took place between the

Bolshevist Red Guards and the Finland

Independents. The Germans took the

side of the Finns. They landed troops

on Aland Island and then on the mainland, and, early in March, it was

announced that a peace treaty had been

signed between Finland and Germany.

By this treaty Germany agreed to exert

herself to secure the recognition, by all

the powers, of Finland's independence.

Finland became a state dependent

upon Germany, and a Teutonic prince,

Prince Frederick Charles of Hesse,

brother-in-law of Kaiser Wilhelm, was

made king of the country.

The peace treaty between the Central

Powers and the Bolsheviki further

stipulated that Russia would without

delay complete the demobilization of

her army and transfer her warships to

Prussian ports and leave them there

until a general peace. The Bolsheviki

also agreed to conclude a peace with

Ukrainia. Prisoners of war on both

sides were to be sent home, but, in

reality, Russian prisoners in Germany

were held indefinitely and compelled

to work for their captors. The Bolsheviki were required to withdraw

their troops from the regions they had

given up. Russia undertook to refrain

from all interference in the internal affairs of

these territories and to let Germany and

Austria determine their future fate in agreement with their populations.

Subsequently the Germans exacted additional terms from Russia, including heavy

financial indemnities. In fact, the Germans

treated Russia much as if she were a vassal province, and it was clear to the world

that they intended to make use of Russian

resources against the Entente. The