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paid for it. Little wonder, therefore, that

the Allied Governments refused to enter the

fatal trap.

On December I, Russian representatives,

preceded by a trumpeter carrying a white

flag, crossed the lines and were met by

German officers. Arrangements were made

that the negotiations would be conducted at

Brest-Litovsk, the headquarters of the

German commander. The Russian peace

delegates were a peasant, a sailor, a soldier,

and a workman. Such men naturally were

no match for the astute Teutons with whom

they negotiated. The negotiations continued for two weeks, and an armistice was

finally signed on December 15, to take effect

two days later. The armistice negotiations

had been carried on against the protests of

Allied representatives in Russia. The conclusion of the armistice was a heavy blow to

the Allied cause, though Allied statesmen

who saw realities had long realized that little

further assistance could be obtained from

Russia. Almost no precautions were taken

by the Bolsheviki to safeguard their former

comrades from the effects of their desertion,

though the armistice contained a weak

provision to the effect that there should be

no transfer of troops from the Eastern Front

during the armistice. Exception was made,

however, for transfers that had been begun

before the signing of the armistice, and,

needless to say, the Teutons found easy ways

of violating the provision and sending troops

to the West Front.

The Germans conducted peace negotiations not only with the Bolsheviki but also

with some of the new states that were arising

from the ruins of the old Russian empire.

On February 9, 1918, the Ukrainian people's