Page 3804

3804 UNIVERSAL HISTORY-THE MODERN WORLD.

aeroplanes. On the occasion of his machine

being struck by a shell, he fell in No Man's

Land between the French and German

trenches but was rescued by the French

infantry, who charged to save their comrade

and in a sanguinary and hand to hand conflict beat back the Germans, who were trying

to capture him.

Guynemer always did his fighting alone.

He chose a light swift craft, and his machine

gun was attached to the top of the aeroplane

directly above his head, being so arranged

that, when he pulled a lever, it would begin

shooting. As the gun was fast to the aeroplane, he aimed by sighting the plane.

Sights were arranged in front of him, and,

when the enemy came within the sight, he

would begin firing by pulling the lever. A

large part of his success was due to his

boldness and also to his constant practice in

shooting. His last fight was thus described

by a comrade:

"Guynemer sighted five machines of the

Albatross type D-3. Without hesitating he

bore down on them. At that moment

enemy patrolling machines, soaring at a

great height, appeared suddenly and fell

upon Guynemer.

"There were forty enemy machines in the

air at this time, including Count von

Richthofen and his circus division of

machines, painted in diagonal blue and

white stripes. Toward Guynemer's right

some Belgian machines hove in sight, but it

was too late.

"Guynemer must have been hit. His

machine dropped gently toward the earth

and I lost track of it. All that I can say is

that the machine was not on fire."

Previous to his death Captain Guynemer

had won the Military Medal, the War Cross,

the Cross of the Legion of Honor, and

practically every other decoration that

France could bestow.

Premier Lloyd George was anxious to

find some solution of the Irish question, and,

on May 21, 1917, he announced that the

Government intended to summon a convention of Irishmen representing all factions

to endeavor to reach an agreement on the

Home Rule question. The Sinn Feiners

refused to send representatives, but all other

parties were represented in the convention,

which met in Dublin, July 25, 1917. As

chairman the convention elected Sir Horace

Plunkett, a man who had done much to

improve economic conditions in the Emerald

Isle.

The convention deliberated for many

months. Ultimately, the majority recommended a plan for Home Rule, whereby

Ireland was to have a separate Parliament,

but executive power was to be vested in the

King and exercised through the Lord Lieutenant. Representation of Ireland in the

British Parliament was, however, to be

continued. Most of the Ulster Unionists

brought in a report declaring the plan unsatisfactory. Certain Nationalists also formally

protested against certain fiscal proposals.

The whole scheme was, in fact, a clumsy

attempt at compromise and never, had any

real chance of success. As in the past, the

Ulster Protestants were determined not to

submit to Catholic domination, while the

Catholic Irish were equally determined that

Ulster must be included.

It was the avowed purpose of the British

Government to couple Home Rule with

Irish conscription. A conscription bill was

carried through Parliament. A great uproar

at once arose in Ireland and threats of

resistance were freely made. A great anti conscription fund was raised, and, on Sunday, April 21, an anti-conscription covenant

was administered by the Catholic priests

throughout Ireland. The assemblies for the

purpose were generally held in the open air,

and a common practice was for the priests to

read the pledge, sentence by sentence, the

audience repeating it after them. The

opposition became so great that the Government postponed conscription and never

attempted to enforce it.

The year 1917 saw some profound changes

in the character of the war. The unrestricted use by the Central Powers of submarines widened the scope of operations and

forced the Allies, and especially Great

Britain, to expend an immense amount of

energy on counter-preparations. The number of men and ships required to combat the

U-boats was out of proportion to the men

and ships employed by the Teutons in their