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3800 UNIVERSAL HISTORY-THE MODERN WORLD.

against German cities. Germany, he said,

misunderstood British psychology, and the

raids on London, instead of intimidating the

British, made them think less of peace than

ever. Since the Battle of the Somme, he

asserted, the British had had the superiority

in the air and could have been bombing the

cities of Germany as the enemy had been

bombing London. But the British were

anxious not to do so, as they desired "to

avoid adding further horrors to a war already

the most cruel in the history of the world.

"But we are dealing with an enemy whose

culture has not carried him beyond the

rudiments of the Mosaic law, and to whom

you can only apply the maxim of 'an eye for

an eye and a tooth for a tooth.' On that

principle we are now most reluctantly forced

to apply to him the bombing policy which he

has applied to us. I am afraid we no longer

have any choice in the matter."

Nevertheless, General Smuts declared that

he deplored the necessity of these developments and said that in British air attacks

against military and industrial centers of the

enemy an effort would be made to spare the

innocent and defenseless who, in the past,

had enjoyed the protection of international

law. He added, "It is almost unbearable to

think that another chapter of horrors must

be added to the awful story, but we can only

plead that it has not been our doing, and the

blame must rest on an enemy who apparently

recognizes no laws, human or Divine: who

knows no pity or restraint, who sang Te Deums

over the sinking of the Lusitania and to

whom the maiming and slaughter of women

and children appear legitimate means of

warfare."

The last Zeppelin venture of consequence

took place on the night of October 19, 1917.

A dozen of the monster airships set out for a

raid on England and succeeded in reaching

that country. Twenty-seven persons were

killed in the districts visited by the raiders,

and over fifty were wounded. In London a

big aerial torpedo destroyed three houses and

killed fourteen persons, almost completely

wiping out two whole families.

While trying to return home, the Zeppelins

lost their way and flew over France. They

were chased by aeroplanes and were repeatedly fired at by aircraft guns. The L44 was

destroyed near Luneville, and all the crew

miserably perished, as they deserved to

perish. The L-45 was brought down near

Gap, in the Alps, in southeastern France.

She was destroyed by her crew, all of whom

were captured. The 1-49 was forced down

near Bourbonne-les-Bains, and was captured,