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been prolonged by particularism. It will be

shortened by solidarity."

In France the Italian disaster contributed

to the fall of the Painleve Ministry, which

had succeeded that of M. Ribot two months

before. The crisis brought to the front

the greatest of living French statesmen,

M. Georges Clemenceau. In 1871, Clemenceau, as a member of the Deputies, had

voted against the cession of Alsace-Lorraine

and had been a relentless advocate of

the recovery of the "lost provinces." For

a time, he had lived in America, had taught

school in Connecticut, and had married

an American woman. From 1906 to 1909,

as we have already seen, he had been Prime

Minister, in the period of the struggle

over the relations of church and state. By

profession he was a journalist, and he had

been unsparing in denouncing those he

suspected of timidity or indecision in prosecuting the war. His energy and fire were

so great that he was often called "The

Tiger." He was now seventy-eight, but he

still had the old fire; if anything, the flames

burned more fiercely in this time of peril.

In his speech in assuming office, he announced that his one object would be to

make war, his one aim to be victorious.

There must be "no more pacifist campaigns,

no more German intrigues." He made

bitter war against the "defeatists," who

sought to make a craven peace-some

because they had felt the touch of German

gold. He brought about the arrest of

former Premier Caillaux on charges of

treasonable correspondence With the enemy;

he secured the conviction and execution of

Bolo Pasha, a German agent whose slimy

trail led through America; he obtained the

banishment of M. Malvy, another politician

of prominence.

"Some day," he told the Chamber of

Deputies, "from Paris to the humblest village, shouts of acclamation will greet our

victorious standards, stained with blood and

tears and torn by shells-magnificent emblem of our noble dead."

Many months of peril were to pass before

that day came, but The Tiger of France

lived to see his prophecy come true. And

that it came true was in no small measure

due to the courage which he managed to

infuse into his country, so that she endured

the long strain of bloody agony. A century

and a half before, it was said of William Pitt,

in the midst of a similar crisis, that no man

conferred with him in his closet without