Page 3775

3775 THE TWENTIETH CENTURY-THE GREAT WAR.

Regiment as prisoners, being badly treated

along the way and on their arrival at the

prison. Ultimately most of those who survived were saved through the personal intercession of a British officer, General Knox,

who went to the headquarters of the Bolsheviki and demanded their immediate release.

The Winter Palace with all its priceless

treasures of art was given over to plunder.

The mob removed all that they thought

worth taking and destroyed most of the

rest. Great pictures were slashed, and

portraits of the Czar were treated with especial fury. Curiously enough, one portrait was

spared, that of the German General von

Moltke. Priceless rugs, carpets, and tapestries were cut to pieces through mere wantonness. Chinaware, gold and silver plate,

much of it the work of great artists long dead

and gone, were carried away by the marauders.

From the Winter Palace the mob passed to

the ancient Hermitage but obtained little

there. In the words of an English correspondent, "It is not only the emperor of all the

Russias who has lost the family goods, nor

Russia alone that has lost no small part of

the treasure of the nation. The world itself

is the poorer for the senseless crime of sacking

the Winter Palace."

The victors proceeded to organize a new

government. It was headed by Nicolai Lenine and Leon Trotsky. The government

of Kerensky was declared deposed, and in a

speech before the Petrograd Council of Workmen's and Soldiers' Delegates Lenine declared

amid prolonged cheers: "Now we have a revolution. The peasants and workmen control the Government. This is only a preliminary step toward a similar revolution

everywhere. Three problems must be solved

by the Russian democracy. First, peace

must be made immediately; second, land

must be handed over to the peasants; third,

there must be a settlement of the economic

crisis."

Leon Trotsky, Lenine's chief associate,.

had lived in many countries and had been

expelled from several. His real name is said

to be Leber Braunstein, and it is said that

he was born in the Russian province of Khersen near the Black Sea. At the time the

revolution broke out in Russia, he was living

in New York City, and his experiences in

the congested East Side of that city undoubtedly embittered him against America

and American institutions.

After his escape from the Winter Palace,

Kerensky succeeded in persuading some Cossacks and other forces to fight under his banner. He advanced toward Petrograd, but

his army was defeated near Tsarko Selo, a

few miles from the capital, and he was again

forced to flee. Moscow was captured by the

Bolsheviki, after desperate fighting in which

several thousand persons were killed. Nearly

everywhere the Kerensky government collapsed. In most places the Bolsheviki gained

control, at least temporarily. Kerensky went

into hiding and, months later, visited England and France, where he received little

attention.

Lenine, the Bolshevist dictator, had summarized the ideas of his party as follows:

"We represent the class-conscious proletarians, hired laborers, and the poorer portion

of the rural population. . . . We stand for

Socialism. The workmen's councils must at

once take the necessary practical steps for

the realization of the Socialistic program.

They must immediately takeover the control of the banks and capitalistic syndicates,

with a view to nationalizing them; that is,

making them the property of the whole people. . . . We advocate a republic of councils

of workmen, soldiers, peasants, etc. All the

power must belong to them. . . . Does the

State need a police force of the usual type

and a standing army? Not at all. The people must be made synonymous with the army

and militia. The capitalists must pay the

workmen for their service in the militia.

Should the army officers be elected by the

soldiers? Yes. Furthermore, every step of

the officers and generals must be verified by

special deputies from the soldiers. Should

the soldiers oust their superiors without authority? Yes. This is useful and necessary

in every respect. The soldiers only obey

and respect the authorities they elect. We

are emphatically against this imperialistic

war and the bourgeoise governments conducting it, our own Provisional Government

included.... We are against annexations.

All the promises of the capitalistic