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organized attack of the Germans if the

enemy forces remain the same as now?

Two commanders answered in vague,

conditional terms: the head of the 10th

Army categorically. The general verdict

was: 'We no longer have any infantry.'

I will make the statement stronger, and say:

'We no longer have any army, and it is

necessary to create one at any price.'

"Under Paragraph 6 of the 'Declaration

of the Soldiers' Rights,' it is prescribed

that all printed matter, without exception,

shall be forwarded to the person addressed.

This deluges the whole army with incendiary Bolshevist literature, and upon

this literature the spirit of the army is fed.

It is evident that official funds, the funds

of the people and of the Military Bureau at

Moscow, have been invested in this vicious

propaganda sent to the front. . . .

"Under Paragraph 14 no one is to be

punished without trial. Certainly this

right belongs to the private soldiers alone,

for the officers continue to be denied it.

What has happened? The high military

tribunal, paralyzed by democratization,

proposes to limit its activities to the most

important cases, such as treason. The

officers have lost all disciplinary authority.

The disciplinary tribunals have not been

elected, either through indifference or

through boycott. In short, justice has

been excluded from the army. All these

legislative measures have annihilated authority and discipline, brought contempt

upon the officers, deprived them of all

confidence, all consideration.

"The officers' corps: it is very painful to

me to speak of this, and I will be brief.

Sokoloff, plunging into military life, has

said: 'I could not have imagined what

martyrs your officers are; I bow before

them.' Yes; in the darkest hours of the

Czarist epoch the satellites and police did

not employ, for those they deemed criminal,

the tortures, the jeers inflicted to-day by

the somber mass, guided by the revolutionary rabble, upon officers who are giving

their lives for their country.

"They are insulted at every turn, they

are struck, yes, struck. But they do not

complain; they are moved by shame,

mortal shame. And more than one in

private sheds tears over his misfortune.

It is not strange that to escape such a

situation many officers seek death on the

battlefield. What epic calm and tragic

resonance vibrate through this passage

from an account of a battle: In vain did

the officers, marching in advance, try to

rally their men. At that moment a white

flag appears on Redoubt 3. Then fifteen

officers, with a little group of soldiers,

marched forward alone. Their fate is

unknown. They were not seen again."

The Germans followed up their advantage by an attack upon Riga, the great city

which they had almost taken late in 1915.

A new scheme of attack-of which more

will be said in a later chapter-was used,

its formulator being General Hutier. The

Russian army was too badly demoralized

to offer effective resistance, and Riga was

speedily taken, together with many prisoners and immense war booty, including

great numbers of heavy guns. The victory aroused great rejoicing in the Central

Powers. Pan-Germans seized the opportunity to proclaim anew the invincibility