Page 3768

3768 UNIVERSAL HISTORY-THE MODERN WORLD.

Battalion of Death. Many volunteered for

this service. They were mostly between

18 and 25 years of age, of good physique,

and many of them were pretty. Their

hair was cut short or their heads entirely

shaved, and they accepted a rigid system

of discipline and Spartan training.

In June, Kerensky visited the Russian

army and made fiery addresses to the

soldiers calling upon them to save their

country by attacking the invaders. He

succeeded in arousing their patriotic fervor

and, on the 1st of July, the Russian armies,

now commanded by General Brusiloff,

began an offensive. The first attacks

were surprisingly successful. Russian

forces advanced from the direction of

Tarnopol toward Lemburg, carried three

lines of trenches, and captured over 8,000

men. Southeast of Brzezany the Russians

made progress, taking over 6,000 prisoners

and forcing the Teutons back to the right

bank of the Little Strip a River. An

attack was developed back of Halicz.

On July 10, the Russians entered that

place taking 10,000 prisoners and throwing

detachments across the Dniester, while

toward the west they forced the Austrians

back some distance. But the Lomnika

River was raised by heavy rains, and the

Russians had to give up positions captured

across that river and retire.

The early news from the Eastern Front

greatly heartened the Allies of Russia.

It was hoped that Russia had recovered

from her orgy and had again become a

real factor in the war. But the effort was

only a flash in the pan. The enthusiasm

which Kerensky had imparted soon died

out. The Teutons rallied and took the

offensive in their turn. Signs of disaffection

and an unwillingness to fight had already

revealed themselves in the Russian army.

In many regiments and divisions there

were refusals to obey orders. Some of the

soldiers fled, shooting their officers, abandoning their artillery and supplies, and

even throwing away their rifles. What

had promised to be a victorious offensive

was transformed into a disgraceful rout.

Meeting with scarcely any resistance, the

Germans and Austrians swept eastward

capturing Tarnopol and other places, and

only in the south were they held back by

the Roumanians.

General Brusiloff resigned and was

succeeded by General Korniloff. Korniloff was a determined and patriotic officer,

but his efforts to restore order out of the

chaos into which the Russian army had

fallen, failed. The fact was that Russia

was beyond hope.

The disastrous outcome was largely due

to the demoralizing efforts of the Maximalists, or as they came to be called, the

Bolsheviki. These extremists were not

content with merely a political revolution

in Russia but wished to overturn the whole

social and economic order. Their chief

leader was Vlamer Utulyanoff, who now

went by the name of Nicholai Lenine.

Lenine had long been a radical revolutionist, and was the author of several

works of an extreme tendency on economic

and social subjects. After the revolution

of 1905, he was elected a member of the

second Duma, but was soon exiled. At

the beginning of the Great War, he was

living in Cracow in Austrian Poland and

was interned as an alien enemy, but was

presently released and joined the colony

of radical Russians in Switzerland. After

the overthrow of the Czar, the German

Government permitted him to cross Germany and reach Russia, where he at once

began preaching immediate peace and

general confiscation of property. In July,

1917, he headed a Bolsheviki rising in Petrograd, but the time was not yet ripe, and

the effort failed. Lenine was driven into

hiding, but he and his confederates continued their plotting. In Allied countries

it was generally believed that they were

paid by Germany.

A report written by General Denikine,

Russian commander in the Tarnopol sector,

made a frank report to the revolutionary

authorities on the reasons for the catastrophe, and this report throws much light

upon the Russian collapse.

"When called to the command," he

wrote, "I found the troops in a state of

complete disorganization. This fact seemed

all the more strange because neither the