3767 THE TWENTIETH CENTURY-THE GREAT WAR.
and of making effective preparations.
On the 1st of June the Workmen's and
Soldiers Delegates defied the provisional
government and seized Kronstadt, the
great fortress which defends Petrograd,
but temporarily the trouble was adjusted.
In the capital armed anarchists raided
the streets, demanding the commune and
a war on capitalists and flaunting black
banners bearing such inscriptions as "Down
with Authority," "Long Live the Social
Revolution and the Commune." On the
5th of June, General Alexieff, who. had
become Commander in Chief soon after
the retirement of the Grand Duke Nicholas,
resigned and was succeeded by General
Brusiloff, the victor of the campaign of 1916.
The situation in Russia gave grave
concern in Allied countries, and efforts
were made by the Allied governments to
influence the course of affairs. A special
American commission headed by Elihu H.
Root, former Secretary of State, visited
Russia, going by way of the Pacific Ocean,
Vladivostok, and Siberia. The commission
was well received in Russia. Mr. Root
made a number of addresses in various
towns and conferred with the people,
and another member of the commission,
Charles Edward Russell, a prominent
Socialist, was received with special warmth.
Steps were taken to furnish economic
assistance to Russia, and John F. Stephens,
head of the American Railway Commission
in Russia, made recommendations asking
that Russia be given a credit of $375,000,000 in this country for new locomotives,
cars, and other equipment.. Large sums
of money were, in fact, advanced by our
Government to Russia before the final
Many Russians, in this critical period,
were genuinely patriotic and were willing
to sacrifice themselves for the general
good. A notable instance was a force
made up of women and girls known as the