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and of making effective preparations.

On the 1st of June the Workmen's and

Soldiers Delegates defied the provisional

government and seized Kronstadt, the

great fortress which defends Petrograd,

but temporarily the trouble was adjusted.

In the capital armed anarchists raided

the streets, demanding the commune and

a war on capitalists and flaunting black

banners bearing such inscriptions as "Down

with Authority," "Long Live the Social

Revolution and the Commune." On the

5th of June, General Alexieff, who. had

become Commander in Chief soon after

the retirement of the Grand Duke Nicholas,

resigned and was succeeded by General

Brusiloff, the victor of the campaign of 1916.

The situation in Russia gave grave

concern in Allied countries, and efforts

were made by the Allied governments to

influence the course of affairs. A special

American commission headed by Elihu H.

Root, former Secretary of State, visited

Russia, going by way of the Pacific Ocean,

Vladivostok, and Siberia. The commission

was well received in Russia. Mr. Root

made a number of addresses in various

towns and conferred with the people,

and another member of the commission,

Charles Edward Russell, a prominent

Socialist, was received with special warmth.

Steps were taken to furnish economic

assistance to Russia, and John F. Stephens,

head of the American Railway Commission

in Russia, made recommendations asking

that Russia be given a credit of $375,000,000 in this country for new locomotives,

cars, and other equipment.. Large sums

of money were, in fact, advanced by our

Government to Russia before the final


Many Russians, in this critical period,

were genuinely patriotic and were willing

to sacrifice themselves for the general

good. A notable instance was a force

made up of women and girls known as the