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Austrian soldiers. In these circumstances

President Wilson, in his annual message

of December 4, 1917, asked Congress to

declare that a state of war existed with

Austria-Hungary. A House Committee

drew up a list of grievances against the

Dual Monarchy, specifying, among other

things, the meddling of Ambassador Dumba with our domestic concerns and the

sinking of American vessels by Austrian

submarines. A formal declaration of war

passed Congress on December II. The

vote in the Senate was unanimous; in

the House the only person who voted

against the declaration was Meyer London,

the Socialist member from New York.

Turkey and Bulgaria were not included

in the resolution, though some persons

thought they should have been. The

United States was never formally at war

with these two countries. Diplomatic

relations with Turkey had already been

broken, but those with Bulgaria were

maintained throughout the conflict.

It was, of course, necessary for the

American authorities to keep close watch

on the immense numbers of alien enemies

resident in the United States. Acts of

Congress required that Germans and

Austro-Hungarians must register as alien

enemies and carry certificates of identification. They were forbidden to go near

army camps, navy yards, and other military

and naval establishments without special

permits; they were not permitted to reside

in or visit certain districts. These provisions at first only applied to men, but

it was soon discovered that women subjects

of enemy countries were, if anything,

more dangerous than the men, and by

a bill approved by the President the

provisions of the espionage act were

extended to them.

The registration revealed the fact that

there were about 500,000 German "alien

enemies" in the United States and between

three and four million Austro-Hungarian

alien enemies in the United States. In