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session closed before it could be passed.

Seventy-six of the 96 Senators, however,

signed a manifesto stating that they

would have supported the bill had a vote

been taken, while eight others would have

signed the manifesto if they could have

been reached. As a result of the filibuster,

many other important measures failed to


Thus ended the first administration of

Woodrow Wilson, with the country drawn

irresistibly into the bloody maelstrom of

the greatest war in history.

The events leading up to our entering

the conflict will doubtless long continue

to be a subject of controversy. President

Wilson's course in international affairs will

be bitterly criticized and as warmly defended. Students of history will not fail

to see a close parallel between his policy

during 1915-17 and that of Jefferson and

Madison in the period preceding the War

of 1812. In each instance a great world

war was raging; in each instance America's rights as a neutral were trampled

upon. In each instance our Government

protested but for a long time did not

go beyond protest. And in each instance

the United States was finally drawn into

the struggle unprepared. Once again America had been forewarned but had failed to


President Wilson and the country generally were deeply indignant over the

success of the Senate filibusters, and he

issued an appeal to the country stating

the facts and asking for a revision of the

Senate rules in order to make it impossible

in future for a small minority to block

legislation. When the Senate assembled

in executive session after the inauguration,

a rule was adopted providing for a system

of closure of debate.

The 4th of March fell upon Sunday,

but President Wilson went through the

formality of taking the oath of office at