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a reaffirmation of an old treaty made

between Prussia and the United States

in 1799 and to add some sweeping clauses

to safeguard endangered German interests.

Gerard's passports were withheld, and

certain American seamen who had been

brought into a German port on the prize

ship Yarrowdale were detained, though their

release was several times promised. A

German official named Count Montgelas

called at the American Embassy and,

after showing Gerard the proposed treaty

stated that unless it was signed Americans

would find great difficulty in leaving the

country. But Gerard stoutly refused to

be bulldozed. He declared: "After your

threat to keep Americans here and after

reading this document, even if I had

authority to sign it, I would stay here

until hell freezes over before I would put

my name to such a paper."

Both Gerard and the American consuls

experienced difficulty in securing passports,

but ultimately all were able to leave

Germany. The American seamen were

also released, after experiencing much

brutal treatment. Gerard and his party

left by way of Switzerland and returned

to America by way of Switzerland, France,

Spain, and Havana. After his return

home, Gerard published two books describing and dealing with his experiences in Germany. Some of these were reproduced on

the moving-picture screen and did much

to arouse the war spirit.'

In public speeches Gerard sought to

impress upon Americans the seriousness of

the crisis. He declared:

"We are in this war because we were

forced into it; because Germany not

only murdered our citizens on the high

seas but also filled our country with spies