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3689 THE TWENTIETH CENTURY-THE GREAT WAR.

message to his people that the Allies had

rejected his peace offers. He did so in

order to drug those whom he could no

longer dragoon." In the same speech the

Premier predicted that in the future, the

nations would "band themselves together

to punish the first peace-breaker who

comes out," thus forecasting a future

League of Nations.

On January 22, President Wilson appeared before the Senate and delivered a

homily on world peace and methods for

obtaining it. He expressed himself in

favor of a "League of Peace" but said

that the present war must first be ended

and. proceeded to set forth the principles

upon which he thought it should be ended.

He declared that, first of all, it must be

"a peace without victory" for "victory

would mean peace forced upon the loser, a

victory won and imposed upon the vanquished. It would be accepted in humiliation, under duress, with a sacrifice and

would leave a sting, a resentment, a bitter

memory upon which the terms of peace

would rest, not permanently but only as

upon quicksand. Only a peace between

equals can last." There must also be

"freedom of the seas," limitation of armaments, and the avoidance of "entangling

alliances." A witty Frenchman characterized the speech as admirably fitted

for a world in which there existed no human

prejudices, frailties, and inconsistencies!

For two years, the President had been

living in a world of theories. Nine days

after delivering the above speech, he was

forced to face realities.

On January 30, Ambassador Gerard,

in Berlin, received a definite intimation

that the Germans were about to declare

for unlimited submarine warfare and cabled

a warning to Washington. On the afternoon of the 31st, Gerard received a note

from Zimmermann, the German Minister

of Foreign Affairs, asking him to come

to the foreign office at six that evening.

Upon his arrival Gerard was handed a note

that Germany would resume ruthless submarine warfare at twelve that night. At

four of that same afternoon. Ambassador

von Bernstorff handed an announcement

of the same tenor to Secretary of State

Lansing, at Washington.

The note asserted that since the attempt

of Germany and her allies to bring about

peace had failed, "owing to the lust of

conquest of their enemies," Germany

was forced "to new decisions." Being

"now compelled to continue the fight for

existence," she must make full employment

of all weapons at her disposal. "Barred

zones" into which not even neutral ships

might enter with safety were created

around Great Britain and off the western

coast of France and in most of the Mediterranean. As a special concession to America, the United States was to be permitted

to send one ship a week to Falmouth in

southern England, but such ships must

show the American flag and "a large flag

checked white and red" and on the ship's

hull and superstructure three vertical

stripes of alternate white and red must

be painted. Furthermore, the American

Government must guarantee that no contraband was carried by these vessels. The

note expressed the hope that the United

States would "view the new situation

from the lofty heights of impartiality"

and would assist "to prevent misery and

unavoidable sacrifice of human life."

"The Germans started this war," comments Gerard, "without any consultation

with the United States, and then seemed

to think that they had a right to demand

that the United States make peace for

them on such terms and at such time as

they chose; and that the failure to do so

gave them a vested right to break all the

laws of warfare against their enemies and

to murder the citizens of the United States

on the high seas, in violation of the declared

principles of international law."

"No time was given," says Gerard,

"to discuss or negotiate. The forty-eight

hour ultimatum given by Austria to Serbia

was not, as Bernard Shaw said, 'A decent

time in which to ask a man to pay his

hotel bill.' What of the six-hour ultimatum given to me in Berlin on the evening

of January 31, 1917, when I was notified

at six that ruthless warfare would commence at twelve? Why, the German