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might have proved successful, and might

have forced the withdrawal of the Teutonic armies operating in Galicia and the

Carpathians, but the reverse proved to

be the case.

At first, the Roumanians won considerable seeming successes. The Austrian

forces in Transylvania fell back without

offering much opposition, and the invaders

captured Kronstadt and various other

places, with considerable territory, in Transylvania, while far to the westward, near

the famous "Iron Gate" of the Danube,

they occupied Orsova. They also closed

the Danube against vessels carrying goods

and munitions between Bulgaria and

Turkey on the one hand, and the Teutonic

Powers on the other, and thereby caused

embarrassment to their enemies.

Meanwhile, however, Teutonic, Bulgarian, and Turkish troops under the

redoubtable von Mackensen invaded the

Dobrudja from the south and won considerable successes, forcing the Russo Roumanian defenders back toward the

line of the railway from Bucharest to

Constantza. Constantza is a port on the

Black Sea, and is notable in history as

being at one end of the great wall built

by the Emperor Trajan to prevent the

incursions of the Dacians. Toward the

end of September, the Roumanians sent

a small army of perhaps fifteen thousand

men across the Danube on an expedition

into Bulgaria. The pontoon bridge by

which the army crossed was destroyed by

Austrian monitors, and most of the force

was killed or captured by the Bulgarians.

The arrival of Roumanian and Russian

reinforcements brought Mackensen's army

to a pause, but, meanwhile, Teutonic

commanders, the most notable of whom

was von Falkenhayn, began an offensive

against the invaders of Austria-Hungary.

It is altogether probable that the Teutonic

armies engaged in this effort were inferior