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them on the voyage; as for communication

with them by the outside world, this was

even harder.'

The Germans, of course, speedily sought

to find a means of dealing with the tanks.

They established special observers and

aeroplanes to watch for the new machines

of warfare and to signal their appearance,

and they placed guns in advantageous

positions, both in the rear and in the

trenches, to deal with them by shell-fire.

Armor-piercing bullets were served out

to machine gunners and riflemen, and

elaborately concealed tank traps were

prepared to engulf the monsters. Nevertheless, the tanks formed such an excellent

antidote for the machine gun that great

numbers were later employed.

In the latter half of September, the

British captured Thiepval-long a thorn

in their side-and numerous other positions, with almost ten thousand prisoners.

Meanwhile, the French also were making

progress, while German morale and determination was weakening. The British

confidenty believed that at last they

were "top dog." Rapid and decisive

progress seemed certain when bad weather

set in and transformed the battle ground

into a sea of mud. Small operations,

however, were continued, and a considerable attack, in the middle of November, netted considerable ground and over

seven thousand prisoners. Further attacks

then had to be postponed until the following year.

The losses on both sides had been enormous. The British losses alone were

estimated at four or five hundred thousand men, almost all killed or wounded,

for they lost few prisoners. The French

losses were probably two hundred thousand. The German losses were not made

known to the world, but they probably

equaled those of the Allies. The Allies

captured over 73,000 Germans and over