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Russians had overrun much of Turkish Armenia, with the cities of Erzerum and

Trebizond; while the British, though unable to relieve their beleaguered comrades

at Kut-el-Amara, still retained all of lower

Mesopotamia in their grasp.

On the seas and beyond, Allied arms

now met with little opposition. Not a

German above-water warship or merchant

vessel ventured out upon the high seas,

and the whole of the once magnificent

commerce of the Central Powers had

dwindled to trade with each other and to

insignificant transactions with the petty

neutral states near their borders. With

the exception of a portion of East Africa,

not a foot remained of the once extensive

German colonial domain, amounting to

more than a million square miles; and

British and Boer troops under the redoubtable Smuts were invading East Africa

from the north, Belgians from the west, and

Portuguese-Portugal had now declared

war against Germany--from the south.

Great Britain had triumphed overwhelmingly in her specialty, and Germany

had won an advantage, though by no

means so overwhelmingly, in hers. Despite

the fact that France and Russia were

still doing most of the Allied fighting

on land, the war was coming to be, in a

large degree, a duel between Germany and

Great Britain; and it remained to be

seen whether military power or sea-power

would triumph in a long war. Sparta,

a military power, had defeated Athens,

a naval power; and similarly Rome had

destroyed Carthage, but in both cases

the victor had won only after wresting

command of the sea from its opponent.

In other great wars, where the naval power

had continued to hold control of the sea,

it had usually managed to win or at least

to fight a drawn war.

Germany was making a bid for supremacy on the sea through her submarines,

but Great Britain was also building up a

powerful land army and now had fully