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Allies in the course of the war. The

Allies had fondly hoped to develop a

strong alliance that would enable them

to bring Turkey to her knees. And now

Bulgaria was openly in arms against them

while Greece remained neutral and might

even be drawn into the war on the same

side as Bulgaria. The situation of Servia

and Montenegro at once became to the

last degree precarious. A vast army of

Teutons was already gathered on the

northern border of Servia, while the powerful Bulgarian army stood ready to attack

Servia from the rear. Coming as this

situation did after the Russian disasters,

the failure at the Dardanelles, and the

disappointment over the Allied offense

in the west, it produced a feeling of gloom

in every Allied capital.

In Great Britain and France the diplomatic defeat and the events that followed

it produced great dissatisfaction and Cabinet crises. In Great Britain, Sir Edward

Carson, the Ulster leader, resigned, but

the Cabinet as a whole managed to weather

the storm. In France, Premier Viviani

resigned, and a new "Ministry of Many

Talents" was formed by Aristide Briand

late in October. M. Viviani received a

portfolio, and the Ministry, as a whole,

included eight ex-Premiers. General Gallieni, whose energy had been shown as

Military Governor of Paris, was made

Minister of War.

From the moment that Bulgaria and

Greece declared their intentions, it became

apparent that only a miracle could save

Servia. And the miracle was not forthcoming. As usual, the Allies hesitated

and procrastinated. There was much talk

but little action. At Salonica a few thousand French and British troops had already

been landed. The world expected that

the number would be rapidly increased and

that Italy would throw troops across the

Adriatic, while there were rumors of a

Russian landing in Bulgaria. A Russian

fleet bombarded Varna and other Bulgarian ports on the Black Sea, and an

Allied fleet treated Dedeagatch on the

AEgean likewise, but troops were sent

out with great deliberation.

Detachments from Salonica were pushed

northward through Greek territory into

Servian Macedonia in the hope of joining

hands with the Servians and keeping the

Bulgarians at bay, but the attempt proved

useless. German and Austrian legions under von Mackensen poured over the Danube, Save, and Drina Rivers, recapturing

Belgrade, and driving the Servians before

them into the mountains. Again King

Peter and his army resisted desperately,

making the most possible of the rugged

character of their country; but they were

weak in artillery, and though they inflicted

heavy losses, they proved unequal to the

task of defending both their front and

rear against determined attacks. The Bulgarians soon cut the railroad between Nish

and Salonica, and their armies pushed

westward and northward. Caught between

two enemies, the Servians were forced

to retreat southwestward toward Montenegro and Albania In order to avoid annihilation. A Russian offensive in Galicia