Page 3612

3612 UNIVERSAL HISTORY-THE MODERN WORLD.

trenches with a hail of shrapnel and

high-explosive shells. Against such an

attack the Russians could make little

reply, for they were wholly outmatched

in number of guns, while their supply of

shells and even of small arms ammunition

had run short. With the relentlessness

of fate and the power of an avalanche, the

Teutonic phalanx fought its way eastward through Galicia. In two weeks

it was nearing Przemysl and the German

press reports claimed the capture of 143,500

Russians. These figures may have been

somewhat exaggerated-the temptation

was great, for Italy had not yet declared

war-but as to Teutonic successes there

could be no doubt.

The Teutonic victories would have

been even more overwhelming if Austro-German forces in the region from the

Beskid Pass to the Roumanian frontier

had been able to carry out the part assigned

to them. These forces, moving northward

and aiming for Lemberg and Tarnopol,

had some preliminary successes; but, realizing the absolute necessity of checking

this drive, the Russians began a counteroffensive against it. The Austro-Germans

in this sector were badly defeated, and

by May 15, the Russians announced the

capture of more than 30,000 prisoners.

Nothing availed, however, to stop the

drive from the west. The Russians hurried

up reserves, including even the forces that

were gathering at Odessa for an attack

on the Bosphorus; but the Teutons fought

their way across the River San, and

early in June, recaptured Przemysl, which

the Russians did not seriously attempt

to defend. Thrusting now here, now

there, capturing thousands of prisoners

almost every day, Mackensen's forces,

intoxicated with victory, pursued their

triumphant way eastward. The Russians

in the Carpathians, taken in the rear,

were either captured, killed or driven out;

and even the victorious army in Bukowina was forced to retreat to preserve