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land, and meanwhile von Hindenburg was

exerting pressure against northern and

western Poland. His operations for the

time, however, were less vigorously pressed

than those in Galicia, and were, in fact,

partly in the way of a diversion, partly

by way of preparation for the grand

drive against Warsaw and the attempt

to bag the Russian army.

In these weeks the main attention of

the world was fixed upon the campaign

of von Mackensen in Galicia. Toward

the end of April, every railway and road

leading to that region had been pouring

hordes of Austro-Hungarian and German

troops and thousands of cannon of all

calibres toward the theater in which it

was proposed to make the great effort.

By the night of May I all was in readiness. The Teutonic generals had concentrated hundreds of guns and hundreds

of thousands of men upon a comparatively

short front in the neighborhood of Tarnow

before the Russian lines in western Galicia.

On the night of May I, "the artillery

fired in slow rhythm at the enemy's positions. Pauses in the fire served the pioneers

for cutting the wire entanglements. On

the 2d of May at 6 a. m., an overwhelming

artillery fire, including field guns and

running to the heaviest calibres, was

begun on the front many miles in extent

selected for the effort to break through.

This was maintained unbroken for four

hours. At 10 o'clock in the morning

these hundreds of fire-spouting tubes

suddenly ceased and at the same moment

the swarming lines and attacking columns

of the assailants threw themselves upon

the hostile positions. The enemy had

been so shaken by the heavy artillery

fire that his resistance at many points

was very slight. In headlong flight he

left his defenses . . . throwing away rifles

and cooking utensils and leaving immense

quantities of infantry ammunition and


According to the German press reports,

prisoners taken declared the effect of the

Teutonic artillery fire "more terrible than

imagination can picture.... Corps, divisions, brigades and regiments melted

away as though in the heat of a furnace.

In no direction was escape possible, for

there was no spot of ground on which the

four hundred guns of the Teutonic allies

had not exerted themselves. All the

Generals and Staff officers of one Russian

division were killed or wounded. Moreover, insanity raged in the ranks of the

Russians, and from all sides hysterical

cries could be heard rising over the roar

of our guns, too strong for human nerves.

Over the remnants of the Russians who

crowded in terror into the remotest corners

of their trenches, there broke the mighty

rush of our masses of infantry, before

which also the Russian reserves, hurrying

forward, crumbled away."

Thousands of Russians were killed or

taken prisoner, and the survivors were

driven eastward. But wherever they attempted to make a stand the same tactics

were used by this new phalanx or battering

ram. First the great German and Austrian howitzers would deluge the Russian