Page 3610

3610 UNIVERSAL HISTORY-THE MODERN WORLD.

many guns. On the 7th of May, they

sank the Lusitania. At the end of April

and the beginning of May, they began

a vast forward movement in the region

about the Baltic and in Galicia. The

combination of new methods and of old

methods marvelously executed dazed and

bewildered their enemies, and for months

Allied efforts seemed weak, disconnected

and purposeless, while the troops of the

two Kaisers marched on from victory

to victory.

On the Eastern Front the Central Powers

had three objects in view: to free Austrian

Galicia, to conquer Poland, and above all,

to destroy the Russian army.

The chief leaders in this great drive

against the Muscovites were Marshal

von Hindenburg and General von Mackensen. The Austrians were nominally

under the command of the Archdukes

Joseph, Frederick, and Boroevic, but in

reality, the Austro-Hungarian forces were

now in large measure under German

direction and command. And the management of campaigns everywhere was under

the supreme direction of the German

General Staff, which, since the retirement

of von Moltke early in the war, was headed

by General von Falkenhayn.

The campaign in the north was entrusted

to von Hindenburg; that in the south

to von Mackensen. At the end of April,

von Hindenburg's forces began an offensive

into the Russian provinces along the Baltic,

great numbers of cavalry being used.

This region was lightly held by the Russians, and at first they were able to offer

little effective resistance. On the 8th of

May the Germans took the port of Libau,

with large quantities of stores and about

1,600 prisoners. Somewhat later they met

with a check before Mitau, but they

managed to overrun a large part of