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people, irrespective of parties, set to work to

win with a unanimity of determination that

fully equaled, if it did not surpass, that

of their hated enemies. In Great Britain

a grand recruiting campaign was under

way, while contingents were drilling in

all the self-governing colonies and in India.

From every corner of the vast Russian

domain men were flocking to the several

fronts. Servia, though terribly affected

by a deadly epidemic of typhus fever,

was reorganizing her shattered forces with

the aid of French and British money, while

even the little Belgian army was being

transformed into a thoroughly equipped

fighting force.

Nor were the Central Powers idle. In

Germany particularly every activity in

life was made subordinate to the one great

object of putting the whole strength of

the Empire in the field. Owing to the

centralized industrial system of the country and to previous preparations in the

way of machinery for producing munitions,

the Germans were able to work more

efficiently than any other nation and to

turn out shells and cannon in quantities

surpassing anything the world had ever

seen. Austria-Hungary lagged far behind

her ally in such matters, but, with German

assistance and direction, presently began

to display qualities that surprised and

disappointed her enemies. The Turks,

too, under the energetic leadership of

Enver Bey and with the assistance of

thousands of German officers, engineers,

and business men, showed capacities that

gave promise of making Turkey more

potent in the conflict than had generally

been anticipated. The blockade of the

Central Powers brought financial ruin to

millions and sorely hampered industry

in some lines. The cutting off of supplies

of rubber, copper, and petroleum was

particularly embarrassing to the producers

of munitions of war, but by economy,

smuggling, and the use of substitutes,

copper roofs, household utensils, etc., the

military authorities were able in a measure

to overcome these difficulties and entered

the campaign in the spring of 1915 much

better equipped than were their opponents.