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Germans, some favored entering the war

on the side of the Allies. In the main the

clericals were pro-German. On September

3, the Secolo of Milan, a pro-Ally paper, thus

set forth its views:

"The first German victories have made

Italians waver, and Germany is taking

advantage of the popular nervousness,

and is working on public opinion in countless ways. Italy is invaded by Germans,

who assert that Germany will issue victorious, and that her commercial and industrial activity will not be arrested. We

are inundated with German letters, telegrams, newspapers, and private communications from German commercial houses,

all asserting that Germany will win, and

that Italy should keep neutral, to be on

the winning side. We are not of that

opinion. We cannot lose sight of England.

Germany knows that England represents

her great final danger, hence the bitterness with which she speaks of England

in all the above communications. England is not playing a game of bluff. She

is not impotent by land, as Germany says,

and may. give Germany a mortal blow

by sea. The war may possibly end in a

titanic duel between England and Germany. In this case England will go

through with the struggle, smiling at

difficulties and disregarding losses."

Among the advocates of intervention

on the side of the Allies, the cry was:

"Free our brother Italians who still languish

under Austrian rule." Prominent on this

side was the celebrated poet Gabriele d'Annunzio and members of the Garibaldi

family. In Italy the name of Garibaldi,

the "hero of the red shirt," the Liberator,

is as sacred as that of Washington and

Lincoln in America; and when several

of his grandsons joined the French foreign

legion and particularly when two of them

were slain, it served to awaken some of

the old time fervor and to revive hatred

of Austria, against whom the great Garibaldi had waged war. It was recalled

that Frenchmen had once stood shoulder

to shoulder with Italians at Magenta and

Solferino and that it was against the Austrians that they had fought.

The funeral of Bruno Garibaldi at

Rome was to the last degree dramatic.

Behind the body, through streets lined

by multitudes, followed a few of the old

"Red Shirts," and, on foot, the ambassadors of France, Great Britain, Russia,

and representatives of the other nations

at war with the Central Powers. The

Italian people could not resist such an

appeal. The story was thus simply told

subsequently by lame old General Ricciotti Garibaldi, son of the "Lion of


"When the war broke out in Europe,

I cabled my sons who were in America

to come home, and when they arrived

I said to them: 'We must make a bloody

sacrifice for the Cause; go and start a

great fire. And so it came to pass that

two of my boys died for France. But

when Bruno's body was brought to Rome

and the people saw it, they understood.

And it lit a spark which set all of Italy


Nor, in any consideration of the causes

that led to the final outcome, must sight

be lost of dynastic influences. In Greece,

at this time and later, the Queen, who

was a sister of the Kaiser, was playing

an active part in preventing Greece from

entering the lists against her august

brother. In Italy another Queen, being

a daughter of the King of Montenegro,

was naturally heartily in sympathy with

the Allied cause. A woman of great beauty

and rare qualities, Queen Helena not

only possessed strong influence over King

Victor Emmanuel III. but also over the

Italian people.

Furthermore, some of the expressions

that escaped from German and Austrian

lips were calculated to ruffle Italian susceptibilities. Outwardly the German and

Austrian Governments preserved a studied

show of friendship, but it was only natural

that many individuals should give way

to their real feelings. At home and in

other countries, citizens of the Central

Powers sneered at "Italian honor, implied

that scuttling off was all that could be

expected of a decadent Italian people;

and they hinted that, after the Kaiser had