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they temporarily beat off their enemies.

In northern Armenia some were rescued by

Russian armies. But the best evidence

goes to show that the great majority of

the Armenians in Turkey were exterminated. Probably seven or eight hundred

thousand people perished.

A large part of the civilized world protested to Turkey against such barbarities

and called upon Germany to induce her ally

to put a stop to the horrors. It was all in

vain. To the American protest Count von

Bernstorff, the German Ambassador at

Washington, first replied that "the alleged

atrocities committed in the Ottoman Empire appear to be pure inventions." Later

he admitted that massacres had taken place

but sought to excuse them on the ground

that the Armenians were disloyal to the

Turkish Government and were secretly

aiding and abetting Russia. Ambassador Morgenthau, himself of German

birth, repeatedly appealed to the German Ambassador, von Wangenheim,

to intervene in behalf of the Armenians, but von Wangenheim invariably

refused to do so. In Germany the

people generally took the ground that

it was not for them to criticize or

interfere with the internal affairs of

an ally. Said the Frankfurter Zeitung:

"If the Porte considers it necessary

that Armenian insurrections and other

goings on should be crushed by every

means available, so as to exclude all

possibility of their repetition, then

that is no 'murder and no 'atrocity,'

but simply measures of a 'justifiable

and necessary' kind."

Probably some Armenians sympathized with Russia in the war, and

some may have aided her, but these

things do not justify the Turkish barbarities and the extermination of a

whole people. Though Germany may

have had no hand in instigating the

massacres, she at least did nothing to

check them, though a protest from her

would have done much to have put an

end to the horrors. But that she

should do so was not to be expected

from the nation responsible for the

deeds done in Belgium and northern

France. Nor should it be forgotten

that many of these deeds antedated

the beginning of the massacres in

Turkey. Why should Germany care

for the murder of Armenians and

the violating of Armenian women

when her own soldiers were guilty of similar

crimes close at home?

Whatever their sympathies as regards

the European phase of the war, few

people in neutral countries could refrain

from hoping that one outcome of the

conflict would be to wrest forever from the