Page 3552

3552 UNIVERSAL HISTORY-THE MODERN WORLD.

Turks and Germans, skillfully entrenched

and well supplied with artillery, barbed wire

entanglements, and deadly machine guns.

The Allies now held about ten square miles

of the peninsula, but practically every foot

of it was exposed to the fire of the Turkish

artillery, and the task of landing supplies

and munitions was a dangerous one. To an

Associated Press correspondent who was

allowed to visit the Turkish lines, Weber

Pasha, the German general commanding the

southern group, said: "The failure of the

Allies to consummate their plan of forcing

the Dardanelles is too obvious for discussion."

In the next few weeks, there was much

sanguinary fighting, with slight gains to

the Allies. The smallness of the area on

which the combats took place added to

the horrors of the situation. It was trench

and mine warfare, and in their excavations

the Allies dug up ruins of long buried

Greek towns and also stone tombs containing the moldering bones of men who

had died long before the Christian era.

The Allied position was the more serious

because the inability of the Russians to

attack the Bosphorus had released great

numbers of Turks who had been held in

readiness to meet that danger, and who

were now available for use about the

Dardanelles. The Allied forces were too

weak both in men, guns, and shells to attempt much, and were forced to watch their

enemies digging fresh trenches and covering

the hills with barbed wire. General Ian

Hamilton had urgently asked for reinforcements, but though some detachments

had reached him, they were not large

enough to make good the heavy losses and

greatly increase the size of the army.

During June, however, the British Government decided to make a more determined

effort to win through, and five divisions

were promised. During July and early

August, transport after transport arrived

from England or Egypt packed with troops,

many of whom were landed upon the Islands

of Imbros, Lemnos, and Mitylene. A

large part of these troops had never been

in battle, and a large proportion of their

officers were equally unseasoned.