Page 3540

3540 UNIVERSAL HISTORY-THE MODERN WORLD.

which should include the three hundred

millions of Mohammedans in Africa and

Asia was dangled before the eyes of the

Faithful. A jehad, or Holy War, was

soon proclaimed with many formalities

at Constantinople, and all Mussulmans

capable of bearing arms-and even Mussulman women-were exhorted to rise

up and defend the faith. Unlike in the

Holy Wars of the past, however, the

Faithful were not to wage war against

all Christians, but only against those of

the Allied nations. But the Mohammedan

world was not so fanatical as of yore.

A Holy War declared against the Balkan

League two years before had provoked

little response, and such proved to be

the case with this "made in Germany"

Holy War. Neither in India, Egypt,

Algeria, nor in the dominions of the Czar

were there any uprisings of importance.

The entrance of Turkey into the war

was, however, a serious matter to the

Allies. Her navy, it is true, was small,

and her treasury was bankrupt; but the

Germans could be depended upon for

the sinews of war, and the Turkish army,

when properly equipped and led, had

always shown itself to be a formidable

fighting force. Furthermore, the geographical position of Turkey was such as

to be very embarrassing to the Allies.

By land she could threaten both the British

in Egypt and the Russians in Transcaucasia, as well as the interests of both these

peoples in Persia. She also controlled

the outlet to the Black Sea. This was of

vital importance to Russia, for, with the

Baltic in German hands and the Arctic

Ocean frozen during part of the year, it

left her without any satisfactory outlet

for her exports of wheat and other grain,

or inlet for needed munitions of war. The

closing of the Dardanelles meant higher

prices for the wheat growers of Kansas

and Alberta and Argentina, but it also