Page 3539

3539 THE TWENTIETH CENTURY-THE GREAT WAR.

make demands for compensation. But

the defeat at the Marne wrecked the

German dream, and from Berlin the word

went out that Turkey must be brought

in. A large section of the Turkish Government hung back from taking the inevitable step, while popular opinion was by

no means decidedly in favor of entering

the war. Enver Pasha and his associates,

both Turkish and German, realized that

something must be done to precipitate

the situation. On the early morning of

October 29, without a declaration of war,

the Goeben and Breslau, which were still

in German hands, with two or three

Turkish torpedo boats, executed a raid

on Odessa and other places on the Black

Sea, bombarded them, and sank or damaged

several Russian vessels. Formal declarations of war quickly followed.

"One final picture I have of these exciting days," writes Ambassador Morgenthau. "On the evening of the 30th I

called at the British Embassy. British

residents were already streaming in large

numbers to my office for protection, and

fears of ill treatment, even the massacre

of foreigners, filled everybody's mind.

Amid all this tension I found one imperturbable figure. Sir Louis was sitting

in the chancery, before a huge fireplace,

with large piles of documents heaped

about him in a semi-circle. Secretaries

and clerks were constantly entering, their

arms full of papers, which they added

to the accumulations already surrounding

the Ambassador. Sir Louis would take

up document after document, glance

through it and almost invariably drop

it into the fire. These papers contained

the embassy records for probably a hundred years. In them were written the

great achievements of a long line of distinguished ambassadors. They contained

the story of all the diplomatic triumphs

in Turkey of Stratford de Redcliffe, the

Great Elchi,' as the Turks called him,

who, for the greater part of almost fifty

years, from 1810 to 1858, practically

ruled the Turkish Empire in the interest

of England. The records of other great

British ambassadors at the Sublime Porte

now went, one by one, into Sir Louis

Mallet's fire. The long story of British

ascendancy in Turkey had reached its

close. The twenty years' campaign of

the Kaiser to destroy England's influence

and to become England's successor had

finally triumphed, and the blaze in Sir

Louis' chancery was really the funeral

pyre of England's vanished power in

Turkey. As I looked upon this dignified

and yet somewhat pensive diplomat, sitting

there amid all the splendors of the British

Embassy, I naturally thought of how

once the sultans had bowed with fear and

awe before the majesty of England, in

the days when Prussia and Germany were

little more than names. Yet the British

Ambassador, as is usually the case with

British diplomatic and military figures,

was quiet and self-possessed. We sat

there before his fire and discussed the

details of his departure. He gave me a

list of the English residents who were to

leave and those who were to stay, and I

made final arrangements with Sir Louis

for taking over British interests. Distressing in many ways as was this collapse

of British influence in Turkey, the honor

of Great Britain and that other ambassador

was still secure. Sir Louis had not purchased Turkish officials with money, as

had Wangenheim; he had not corrupted

the Turkish press, trampled on every

remaining vestige of international law,

fraternized with a gang of political desperadoes, and conducted a ceaseless campaign of misrepresentations and lies against

his enemy. The diplomatic game that

had ended in England's defeat was one

which English statesmen were not qualified

to play. It called for talents such as

only a Wangenheim possessed-it needed

that German statecraft which, in accordance with Bismarck's maxim, was ready

to sacrifice for the Fatherland 'not only

life but honor.' "

It was the German hope that the

entrance of Turkey into the war would be

the signal for uprisings of millions of the

Mohammedan subjects of Great Britain,

France, and Russia. The prospect of

establishing a great Mussulman Empire