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defeats were either suppressed or minimized. Every possible course was taken

to arouse hostility toward the Allies and

to convince the Turks that the Teutons

were the true friends of Islam. Emissaries

of the Germans and of Enver Pasha began

to arm and organize the Bedouins on the

Egyptian frontier, and rifles and ammunition were sent southward. The Khedive,

who was not then in Egypt, was a party

to the effort to involve Turkey in the war,

and secret agents were dispatched to Egypt

to stir up revolt.

The Allied representatives at Constantinople did what they could to counteract

these influences, and received assistance

from some of the members of the ministry,

particularly from Djavid Bey, the Jewish

Minister of Finance. The Allies at once

demanded that the German warships, the

Goeben and Breslau, should be interned

in accordance with international law in

such cases; this the Turks refused to do,

and announced that they had bought the

vessels to take the places of the Sultan

Osman and the Reshadie, which had been

requisitioned by the British. The German

officers and crews continued on the vessels,

however, in spite of repeated protests

from the Alllied representatives. Furthermore, other German officers and men,

both army and naval, were constantly

arriving in Constantinople. Supreme in

both the army and the navy, the pro Germans were able to control the action

of their Government; and those members

of the Ministry who favored neutrality

found themselves powerless and in personal danger if they insisted upon their


Unofficially neither the Turks nor the

Germans made much effort to conceal the

fact that the sale of the German cruisers

was fictitious. A few Turkish sailors

were placed on board, but the German

officers and German crews remained in

active charge. The name of the Goeben

was changed to the Sultan Selim and that