Page 3535


good humored and would laugh uproariously over a good story. He had been

prominent in the Young Turk movement

from an early date. He told Morgenthau

that he had worked hard for its success,

but, seeing that the Turks were not ready

for democratic institutions, had determined to seize control.

Enver, like Talaat, also sprang from

the people. When only twenty-six, he

had taken a prominent part in the Young

Turk movement, and was sometimes called

the "Hero of the Revolution." He had

fought in Tripoli against the Italians, was

the main factor in the recapture of Adrianopie from the Bulgarians, and had recently

married a daughter of the Sultan. He

considered himself a sort of combination

of Napoleon and Frederick the Great,

and was athirst for fame and military


He had spent some time in Germany,

a part of it as military attach, and

had become highly enthusiastic over

things German. "He had learned to

speak German fluently, he was even wearing a mustache slightly curled up at the

ends; indeed, he had been completely captivated by Prussianism."

Djemal was a less striking personality

than either Talaat or Enver, but: he was

Minister of Marine and also head of the

Constantinople police force, a position

that gave him much power. Enver was

Minister of War, and Talaat was Minister

of the Interior and leader of the Committee

of Union and Progress.

It seems almost certain that, even before

the war broke out, the Germans had a

secret understanding with Enver and

probably with others of the Ring. In

December, 1913, General Liman von Sanders had arrived in Turkey at the head

of a military mission to reorganize the

Turkish army. This fact had not aroused

much comment at the time, for such

missions were not uncommon, and an

English naval mission was even then in

Turkey engaged in the difficult task of

reorganizing the Turkish navy. Von Sanders and his assistants worked energetically, and, in a few months, "what

in January had been an undisciplined,

ragged rabble was now parading with the

goose step; the men were clad in German

field gray, and they even wore a casque-shaped head covering, which slightly suggested the German pickelhaube." In the

words of Ambassador Morgenthau, "By

January, 1914, seven months before the

Great War began, Germany held this

position in the Turkish army: a German

general was Chief of Staff"; another

was Inspector General; scores of German

officers held commands of first importance,

and a Turkish politician who was even

then an outspoken champion of Germany,

Enver Pasha, was Minister of War."

The Germans managed to win the favor

of the political ring which controlled

Turkey, and they also worked with great

energy to create a public sentiment favorable to Turkey's entering the war,

in case the War Lords should deem it

desirable. Millions of dollars were sent

into the country and expended in purchasing influential men and subsidizing

the press. The news of Teutonic victories

was exploited, while reports of Teutonic