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gust, 1915, with the drowning of about

a thousand men. Still more disastrous

was the sinking in February, 1916, of

the French transport La Provence. This

vessel was carrying about four thousand

troops to Salonica, and less than one thousand were saved.

The Allies had more submarines than

did their enemies, but so long as their

enemies remained in their harbors the

Allied submarine commanders had little

opportunity to distinguish themselves. One

of the first exploits of such a submarine

was that of the British B-ll, which, in

December, 1914, dived under five rows

of mines in the Dardanelles and sunk

the old Turkish battleship Messudieh.

In June of the following year, the British

E-11 succeeded in penetrating to the Sea

of Marmora and even appeared off

Constantinople. All told, it sank twelve

Turkish and German vessels and succeeded

in making its escape.

Similar exploits were repeatedly performed in Turkish waters, and the transportation of supplies from Constantinople

to Gallipoli was much hampered. Not all

of the submarines that attempted such feats


Of German commerce raiders the most

famous were the Karlsruhe and the Emden.

The Karlsruhe, a very swift light cruiser,

with a speed of 28 knots, operated in

the region of the West Indies and off the

east coast of South America. She made

many captures, but, after several lucky

escapes, she disappeared from view, and,

according to one account, was destroyed by

an accidental explosion.

The Emden, however, attracted by far

the greater attention throughout the world.

She was a cruiser of 3,540 tons, with a

speed of 24&1/2 knots, and she was commanded by Captain von Muller. In all

she captured over twenty merchant ships,

worth with their cargoes several millions of

dollars, and besides performed some daring

exploits. In September, 1914, she appeared off Madras and bombarded the

great oil tanks of the city, inflicting considerable damage. Late in October, having

been disguised by the addition of a dummy

fourth smokestack, she ran into the harbor

of Penang and sank a small Russian

cruiser, the Jemtchug, and a French torpedo boat. Her destructive career and the

success with which for a time she eluded her

enemies reminded Americans of the exploits

of the Confederate cruiser Alabama.

The career of the Emden was, however,

much shorter than that of the Alabama,

though their ends were similar. On November 9, 1914, she appeared at Keeling,

on the Cocos Islands, southwest of Sumatra,

in order to destroy the wireless station and

perhaps to obtain supplies. Before the

station could be destroyed, the operator

sent out a general call for help, and, soon

after, the fine, large Australian cruiser

Sydney hove in sight. The Emden fled

at once, without waiting to pick up the

landing party; but the Sydney had the

speed, of her and also guns of longer range.

Keeping practically out of reach of the

German guns, the Sydney battered up the

Emden. so badly that she was run ashore

on North Keeling Island, and her crew

surrendered. Meanwhile, the landing

party seized an old schooner, and weeks