3510 UNIVERSAL HISTORY-THE MODERN WORLD.
gust, 1915, with the drowning of about
a thousand men. Still more disastrous
was the sinking in February, 1916, of
the French transport La Provence. This
vessel was carrying about four thousand
troops to Salonica, and less than one thousand were saved.
The Allies had more submarines than
did their enemies, but so long as their
enemies remained in their harbors the
Allied submarine commanders had little
opportunity to distinguish themselves. One
of the first exploits of such a submarine
was that of the British B-ll, which, in
December, 1914, dived under five rows
of mines in the Dardanelles and sunk
the old Turkish battleship Messudieh.
In June of the following year, the British
E-11 succeeded in penetrating to the Sea
of Marmora and even appeared off
Constantinople. All told, it sank twelve
Turkish and German vessels and succeeded
in making its escape.
Similar exploits were repeatedly performed in Turkish waters, and the transportation of supplies from Constantinople
to Gallipoli was much hampered. Not all
of the submarines that attempted such feats
Of German commerce raiders the most
famous were the Karlsruhe and the Emden.
The Karlsruhe, a very swift light cruiser,
with a speed of 28 knots, operated in
the region of the West Indies and off the
east coast of South America. She made
many captures, but, after several lucky
escapes, she disappeared from view, and,
according to one account, was destroyed by
an accidental explosion.
The Emden, however, attracted by far
the greater attention throughout the world.
She was a cruiser of 3,540 tons, with a
speed of 24&1/2 knots, and she was commanded by Captain von Muller. In all
she captured over twenty merchant ships,
worth with their cargoes several millions of
dollars, and besides performed some daring
exploits. In September, 1914, she appeared off Madras and bombarded the
great oil tanks of the city, inflicting considerable damage. Late in October, having
been disguised by the addition of a dummy
fourth smokestack, she ran into the harbor
of Penang and sank a small Russian
cruiser, the Jemtchug, and a French torpedo boat. Her destructive career and the
success with which for a time she eluded her
enemies reminded Americans of the exploits
of the Confederate cruiser Alabama.
The career of the Emden was, however,
much shorter than that of the Alabama,
though their ends were similar. On November 9, 1914, she appeared at Keeling,
on the Cocos Islands, southwest of Sumatra,
in order to destroy the wireless station and
perhaps to obtain supplies. Before the
station could be destroyed, the operator
sent out a general call for help, and, soon
after, the fine, large Australian cruiser
Sydney hove in sight. The Emden fled
at once, without waiting to pick up the
landing party; but the Sydney had the
speed, of her and also guns of longer range.
Keeping practically out of reach of the
German guns, the Sydney battered up the
Emden. so badly that she was run ashore
on North Keeling Island, and her crew
surrendered. Meanwhile, the landing
party seized an old schooner, and weeks