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3492 UNIVERSAL HISTORY-THE MODERN WORLD.

could be spared. But before the reinforcements could arrive, the threatened

army, under General von Mackensen,

by "unbelievable" exertions, managed to

cut its way out, though only after enormous

losses.

Meanwhile the Austrians had attacked

the armies of Generals Brusiloff and

Dimitrieff in the region of the Carpathians,

but had been driven back with tremendous

losses, particularly in prisoners. Bukowina was overrun, but with the help of

German reinforcements, partly cavalry

from the Western Front, the Austrians

were able to hold in check the Cossack

raids into Hungary. They failed, however,

to relieve Przemysl, and Cracow was still

threatened.

Following the escape of the German

army surrounded near Lodz, the Russians

again evacuated this city, and fell. back

to the strong Bzura-Rawka line. Late

in December, von Hindenburg made a

desperate effort to hack his way through,

by frontal attacks, to Warsaw. Several

hundred pieces of artillery were massed

in front of the Bzura-Rawka line, and for

ten days and nights the Germans alternately bombarded the Russian trenches

and assaulted them with infantry. The

losses on both sides were terrific, but the

Russians held firm, and the Germans were

foiled. It was evident that Warsaw could

not be captured by frontal attack from

the west.

The failure of the Germans in Poland

was rendered all the more discouraging by

events in Servia. Some weeks before the

Austrians had again attempted to overrun

that little kingdom, and had sent several

army corps to do the work. Confronted

by superior numbers, the Servians were

driven out of the northwestern corner of

their country, Belgrade was captured, as

a birthday present for the aged Francis

Joseph, and, by the beginning of December,

the fate of the little kingdom seemed

sealed.

But the Russians sent a raiding expedition into Hungary, and a large force was

detached from the Austro-Hungarian army

in Servia to meet this new menace, while