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a great deal of being everything. In the

domain of morale it must also be conceded

that at the outset the advantage lay with

the Germans. There were Poles in the

east and citizens of Alsace and Lorraine

in the west who had no enthusiasm for

the war, but otherwise the whole German

people-even the Social-Democrats with

but few exceptions-were thoroughly

united and were uplifted by a great fervor

of patriotism and confidence in their own

invincibility. One may or may not believe in the justice of the German cause,

but as to German unity there can be no

doubt. For decades the German authorities had labored to mould public sentiment in such matters, and they had undoubtedly succeeded. The Russians rose

to the emergency with reasonable determination, but they fell far short of German

enthusiasm, while easy-going, phlegmatic

"John Bull" did not really awaken to the

war for over a year. As for the French,

they were fully as patriotic and unified

as were the Germans, but they lacked the

German confidence, and did not really

"find themselves" until the battle of the


In both material matters and in morale

Austria-Hungary, however, was far behind its great ally. Its army and navy

were much weaker, its organization for

war was comparatively non-existent, and

it was financially a poor nation. Nor did

its polyglot peoples, considered as a whole,

have much enthusiasm for the war or

possess a great deal of patriotism. In

fact, one object of the rulers of the Dual

Monarchy in precipitating the war had

been to prevent the Empire from breaking

up as a result of racial antagonisms. It

was evident from the outset that Austria-Hungary was the weak member of the

partnership, and it remained to be seen