Page 3432

3432 UNIVERSAL HISTORY-THE MODERN WORLD.

Britain alone, with a total wealth of perhaps $85,000,000,000, was richer than

Germany. France was almost as rich as

Germany, and Russia richer by fifteen

billions than Austria, while the combined resources of Belgium, Servia,

and Montenegro were probably in

excess of ten billions. The combined

wealth of the Allies was from $150,000,000,000 to $200,000,000,000; that of the

Central Powers, from 80,000,000,000 to

100,000,000,000.

On the sea the superiority of the Allies

was overwhelming. In dreadnoughts,

super-dreadnoughts, pre-dread noughts,

battle cruisers, and submarines, Great

Britain was about twice as strong as Germany. The sum total of the muzzle

energy of the great guns on Britain's "capital" ships-that is, battleships of later

types-was 16,728,430 foot-tons, against

8,639,200 for those of Germany; while,

if to the above be added the muzzle energies of the great guns on older battleships, the figures stood 22,055,230 foot tons to 10,914,000. France, though not

so strong as Germany, was decidedly

superior to Austria-Hungary. In late

years, Russia had been rebuilding her

navy and possessed fairly strong fleets on

the Baltic and Black Seas, with several

dreadnoughts not yet finished. Of "capital" ships the Allies had 51, to 22 for the

Central Powers and Turkey; of older

battleships they had 107 against 29; of

armored cruisers 75 against II; of submarines, 262 against 37. Furthermore,

in ships building, in ship yards, in dry

docks, and in coaling stations scattered

throughout the world, they enjoyed immense advantages. It was evident to

everyone well informed upon naval affairs

that the Allies would control the high seas,

and the only matter about which there

was much doubt was as to how much

annoyance the Central Powers would be

able to inflict upon their enemies.

Upon the land, however, the Central

Powers started with a marked superiority,

though even here their superiority was

rather in readiness, training, and equipment than in numbers. Exact figures

are impossible, but the peace strength of

the German army amounted to about

870,000 men and the war strength to about

5,400,000; the peace strength of Austria-Hungary was 436,000, and the war

strength, 3,600,000. Russians peace

strength amounted to 1,384,000; her war

strength to 5,400,000. The figures for

France were respectively 790,000 and

5,300,000. Great Britain's regular army

amounted to only 137,500 men; but, in

addition, she had 251,000 Territorials,

comparable to the militia of our own States,

though better trained and officered, besides

considerable colonial forces.

For years men like Lord Roberts had

endeavored to convince their country

of the need of raising a larger army in

order to combat the German peril, but

they had found it like preaching to the

dead. Many Englishmen considered such

a war improbable or even impossible,

while others laid their trust in the fleet.

But with the German armies flooding

into Belgium and France, Britons at last

realized that they must have a greater

army. Almost unanimously the nation

turned to Lord Kitchener as the man to

become the head of the War Office and