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V CONTENTS OF VOLUME IV.

He claims the Throne. Suffolk slain.
Career of Jack Cade.
The Duke of York Protector.
Battle of St. Albans.
Northampton.
A Settlement.
Battle of Wakefield.
London for York.
Mortimer's Cross.
Ruin of Lancaster.
Growth of the People.
Edward IV.
Towton.
Destruction of the Lancastrians.
Margaret in Paris.
She loses All in Battle.
Disgrace of Henry VI.
Conspiracy against Edward.
Anti-York Uprising.
Henry VI. brought forth.
Extinction of Lancaster.
Despair of Margaret.
Murder of Prince Edward.
End of Henry VI.
Results of the War.
Richard woos Anna.
Edward IV. would conquer France.
Licentiousness of the King.
Apparition of Henry Tudor.
Henry V.
Plots of Gloucester.
His Desperate Work.
He takes the Throne.
Murder of the Princes.
Can Gloucester reign?
Death of his Son.
Coming of Richmond.
Battle of Bosworth Field.
Establishment of the Tudor Dynasty.
Henry VII.
Retrospect.
The King and the People . . 1522-1553

CHAPTER XCVIII.
SPAIN, ITALY, AND THE NORTH OF EUROPE.

Spanish States.
Navarre.
Early History of the Country.
Aragon.
House of Barcelona.
Castile absorbs Leon.
The Mohammedans recede.
House of Trastamara.
Ferdinand the Catholic.
He marries Isabella.
Consolidation of Spain.
Persecution of the Jews.
Expulsion of the Moors.
Distraction of Italy.
The Cities resist Feudalism.
Municipal Liberties.
Low Condition of Society.
ThePodestas.
Famine and Plague.
Queen Joanna.
Leading Powers of Italy.
Visconti and Medici.
Career of Cesare Borgia.
Machiavelli.
The Prince.
Savonarola.
CharlesVIll. invades Italy.
His Relations with Piero.
Conquest of Naples.
Invasion by Louis XII.
League of Ganbrai.
Battle of Novara.
Primitive Sweden.
Reign of Magnus.
Albert of Mecklenburg.
Union of Calmar.
Eric.
Haco V. in Norway.
The Black Death.
Norway merged with Sweden.
Margaret of Denmark.
Early History.
Primitive Russia.
Reign ofDonski.
Basil II
Ivan the Great ....... 1554-1568

BOOK SEVENTEENTH
NEW WORLD AND REFORMATION.

CHAPTER XCIX
LAND Ho!

Round or Flat?
Views ofMandeville.
His Reasoning.
Belief in the Sphericity of the Earth.
First Discovery of North America.
Erickson and his Successors in Massachusetts.
Small Knowledge of the Country.
Vinland.
The Sea Kings.
Norse Remains in America.
Story of Prince Madoc.
Political Condition of Europe.
Columbus.
His Views of Geography.
Sketch of his Life and Character.
His Voyage and Discovery.
He reaches the West Indies.
A Colony planted.
Third and Fourth Voyages.
The Name given to the New World.
Vespucci.
Excitement in Europe.
Balboa discovers the Pacific.
De Leon in Florida.
He seeks the Fountain of Youth.
End of his Career.
Cordova and Grijalva.
Cortez invades Mexico.
Montezurna would dissuade him.
The Spaniard takes the Capital.
Seizes the Emperor.
Coming ofNarvaez.
Cortez goes forth and defeats him.
Insurrection in Mexico.
Battles in the City.
Montezurna killed.
Extinction of the Empire.
Mexico a Spanish Province.
Magellan doubles Cape Horn.
Circumnavigates the Globe.
French and English Enterprise.
John Cabot commissioned.
He discovers North America.

Returnsto England.
Sebastian'sVoyage.
Hetraces the American Coast.
His Future Career.
Work of da Gama.
The Pope gives the World away.
First Discoveries by the French.
Voyage of Verrazzani.
His Exploits on the American Coast.
Carrier's discoveries in the St. Lawrence.
Voyages of the Cortereals ................ 1573-1597

CHAPTER C.
THE REFORMATION PROPER.

The Conscience unveiled.
First Protestantism.
Hilary, Martin, and Hincmar.
Early Movements in Bohemia and England.
The Church would reform Herself.
Her Abuses discovered.
Popes and Councils.
The Council of Constance in Particular.^
Plans proposed.
What was done.
The Movement led by Erasmus.
His Character and Failure.
Rising of the People.
Sketch of Leo X.
He gains Political Power.
The Lateran authorizes Indulgences.
Consequent Corruptions.
St. Peter's in the Problem.
Germany to be plucked.
The Pardon Venders.
Tetzel in Particular^
Coming of Luther.
Sketch of his Youth.
He sees a Monk.
He is destined to Law.
Goes to Eisenach.
Becomes Melancholy.
His Conscience aroused.
Does Penance.
His Studious Habit.
He becomes a Professor at Wittenberg.
His Experiences.
Frederick the Wise.
Luther would not break with the Church.
Tetzel and his Wares.
The Monkish Quarrel.
Luther puts up his Theses.
A Controversy begins.
Leo pleased at First.
Cajetan would quiet the Reformer.
The Pope's Nuncio at Wittenberg.
Almost a Settlement.
Contest of Luther and Eck.
The Reformer backed by the People.
Hutten and Melanchthon support him.
Luther excommunicated.
He burns the Pope's Bull.
Rome appeals to the Temporal Power.
Accession of Charles V.
His Inheritance.
Relations of Elector Frederick.
The Diet at Worms.
Von Frundsberg.
Luther before the Assembly.
The Bigofs would destroy him.
He is carried to Wartburg.
-He

Vol. IV